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Suggested Articles:

TCP - UDP Protocol Analysis

UDP Protocol - Header

This article covers the UDP protocol. We examine the structure of the UDP header, the protocols that use UDP as a transport plus a lot more. Some ...
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)

Spanning Tree Protocol – Part 2: Rapid STP Port...

Spanning Tree Protocol, Rapid STP port costs and port states are an essential part of the STP algorithm that affect how STP decides to forward or b...
The OSI Model

The OSI Model: Layer 3 - Network Layer

The Network layer is responsible for routing through an internetwork and for networking addressing. This means that the Network layer is responsibl...
Ethernet Protocol, CSMA/CD, Collisions

The Ethernet II Frame Format

The following is a description of the frame format described by the original Ethernet Version II specification as released by DEC, Intel, and Xerox...

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Netflow Articles:

NetFlow Analyzer: Free Download, Step-by-Step I...

In our previous article we explained how a Netflow Analyzer can help you gain visibility into your user traffic, application traffic and data flows...

Netflow: Monitor Bandwidth & Network Utilizatio...

Monitoring network traffic & bandwidth usage via Netflow is mandatory for any type and size network. Gaining visibility into user traffic, appl...

Complete Guide to Netflow: How Netflow & its Co...

This article will cover the basics of Netflow, including its use cases, Netflow supported devices, Netflow history, and variants. We’ll also dive i...

Netflow vs SNMP. Two Different Approaches to Ne...

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) and Netflow are both popular protocols with admins, prized for their ability to give visibility over the ...

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VLAN Networks

The VLAN Concept - Introduction to VLANs

We hear about them everywhere, vendors around the world are constantly trying to push them into every type of network and as a result, the Local Area Ne...
VLAN Networks

VTP Protocol - In-Depth Analysis

The previous article introduced the VTP protocol, we examined how it can be used within a network, to help manage VLANs and ease the administrative over...
VLAN Networks

VLAN Tagging - Understanding VLANs Ethernet Frames

We mentioned that Trunk Links are designed to pass frames (packets) from all VLANs, allowing us to connect multiple switches together and independently ...
VLAN Networks

InterVLAN Routing - Routing between VLAN Networks

This article deals with the popular topic of InterVLAN routing, which is used to allow routing & communication between VLAN networks. Our article an...

Routing

OSPF - Part 1: Introduction, OSPF Packet Structure, ...

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a popular routing protocol developed for Internet Protocol (IP) networks by the Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) worki...
Routing

Distance Vector Routing Protocols

Distance Vector routing protocols use frequent broadcasts (255.255.255.255 or FF:FF:FF:FF) of their entire routing table every 30 sec. on all their inte...
Routing

OSPF - Part 4: OSPF Neighbor States – OSPF Neighbor ...

This is the third article of our OSPF series which analyzes the different OSPF States routers go through during the OSPF discovery and neighbor forming ...
Routing

Hybrid Routing Protocols - Advantages and Disadvanta...

Hybrid routing protocols are a combination of distance-vector and link-state routing protocols, and are used to provide a more efficient and scala...

Cisco Routers

Configuring Site to Site IPSec VPN Tunnel Between Ci...

Site-to-Site IPSec VPN Tunnels are used to allow the secure transmission of data, voice and video between two sites (e.g offices or branches). The VPN t...
Virtualization & VM Backup

Differences Between VMware vSphere, vCenter, ESXi Fr...

In this article we will cover the differences between VMware ESXi, vSphere and vCenter while also explain the features supported by each vSphere edition...
Cisco Wireless

Cisco Aironet 1242AG /1240 - Multiple SSID & 802.1...

This article explains how the Cisco 1240 series access point can be setup to provide support for multiple SSID, each SSID assigned to a separa...
Virtualization & VM Backup

How to Enable SNMP on VMware ESXi Host & Configure E...

In this article we will show you how to enable SNMP on your VMware ESXi host, configure SNMP Community string and configure your ESXi firewall to allow ...