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Network Protocols

IPSec - Internet Protocol Security

IPSec is one of the new buzz words these days in the networking security area. It's becoming very popular and also a standard in most operating sys...
Ethernet Protocol, CSMA/CD, Collisions

The IEEE 802.3 Frame Format

The following is a description of the Ethernet Frame Format described in the IEEE 802.3 Specification. The 802.3 Specification defines a 14 byte Da...
The OSI Model

The OSI Model: Layer 2 - Datalink Layer

The Datalink ensures that messages are delivered to the proper device and translates messages from the Network layer into bits for the Physical lay...
Network Address Translation - NAT

Static NAT - Part 1

Static NAT (also called inbound mapping) is the first mode we're going to talk about and also happens to be the most uncommon between smaller netwo...

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Netflow Articles:

Complete Guide to Netflow: How Netflow & its Co...

This article will cover the basics of Netflow, including its use cases, Netflow supported devices, Netflow history, and variants. We’ll also dive i...

NetFlow Analyzer: Free Download, Step-by-Step I...

In our previous article we explained how a Netflow Analyzer can help you gain visibility into your user traffic, application traffic and data flows...

Netflow vs SNMP. Two Different Approaches to Ne...

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) and Netflow are both popular protocols with admins, prized for their ability to give visibility over the ...

Netflow: Monitor Bandwidth & Network Utilizatio...

Monitoring network traffic & bandwidth usage via Netflow is mandatory for any type and size network. Gaining visibility into user traffic, appl...

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VLAN Networks

VLAN Tagging - Understanding VLANs Ethernet Frames

We mentioned that Trunk Links are designed to pass frames (packets) from all VLANs, allowing us to connect multiple switches together and independently ...
VLAN Networks

Comparing Traditional Flat & VLAN Networks

Designing and building a network is not a simple job. VLANs are no exception to this rule, in fact they require a more sophisticated approach because of...
VLAN Networks

InterVLAN Routing - Routing between VLAN Networks

This article deals with the popular topic of InterVLAN routing, which is used to allow routing & communication between VLAN networks. Our article an...
VLAN Networks

Dynamic VLANs

Dynamic VLANs were introduced to grant the flexibility and complexity(!) that Static VLANs did not provide. Dynamic VLANs are quite rare because of thei...

Routing

Distance Vector Routing Protocols

Distance Vector routing protocols use frequent broadcasts (255.255.255.255 or FF:FF:FF:FF) of their entire routing table every 30 sec. on all their inte...
Routing

Interior Gateway Protocol - IGRP

IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) is a Cisco proprietary distance-vector routing protocol used in enterprise networks to exchange routing informa...
Routing

OSPF - Part 2: How OSPF Protocol Works & Basic Conce...

This article covers basic OSPF concepts and operation. We explain how OSPF works, how OSPF tables are built on an OSPF-enabled router and their purpose ...
Routing

Hybrid Routing Protocols - Advantages and Disadvanta...

Hybrid routing protocols are a combination of distance-vector and link-state routing protocols, and are used to provide a more efficient and scala...

Cisco Routers

Cisco Router Password Recovery

Password recovery is a fairly frequently used procedure for administrators and engineers. Even though we usually stack our passwords in some word, excel...
Windows Servers

Windows 2003 DHCP Server Advanced Configuration - Pa...

Part 1 of our Windows 2003 DHCP Server Advanced Configuration article explained the creation and configuration of DHCP Scope options and how to configur...
Virtualization & VM Backup

SysAdmin Day 2020 - Get your Free Amazon Voucher & G...

SysAdmin Day has arrived, and with it, gratitude for all the unsung heroes that 2020 has needed. Your hard work has made it possible for all of us to ke...
Cisco Routers

How To Configure DNS Server On A Cisco Router

The DNS protocol is used to resolve FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Names) to IP addresses around the world. This allows us to successfully find and connec...