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Network Protocols

File Transfer Protocol - FTP

File transfer is among the most frequently used TCP/IP applications and it accounts for a lot of the network traffic on the Internet. Various stand...
Subnetting

IP Subnetting - Part 2: Subnet Masks & Their Ef...

There are a few different ways to approach subnetting and it can get confusing because of the complexity of some subnets and the flexibility they o...
ICMP Protocol

ICMP Protocol - Part 2: Echo / Echo Reply (Ping...

As mentioned in the previous page, an Echo is simply what we networking engineers call a 'ping'. The Echo Reply is, as most would guess,  the ...
Ethernet Protocol, CSMA/CD, Collisions

Early Ethernet Collisions

In this example, we will refer to an imaginary Ethernet network consisting of Stations A and B and any number of other stations. The status of the ...

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Netflow Articles:

Netflow: Monitor Bandwidth & Network Utilizatio...

Monitoring network traffic & bandwidth usage via Netflow is mandatory for any type and size network. Gaining visibility into user traffic, appl...

NetFlow Analyzer: Free Download, Step-by-Step I...

In our previous article we explained how a Netflow Analyzer can help you gain visibility into your user traffic, application traffic and data flows...

Netflow vs SNMP. Two Different Approaches to Ne...

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) and Netflow are both popular protocols with admins, prized for their ability to give visibility over the ...

Complete Guide to Netflow: How Netflow & its Co...

This article will cover the basics of Netflow, including its use cases, Netflow supported devices, Netflow history, and variants. We’ll also dive i...

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VLAN Networks

The VLAN Concept - Introduction to VLANs

We hear about them everywhere, vendors around the world are constantly trying to push them into every type of network and as a result, the Local Area Ne...
VLAN Networks

VTP Introduction & Modes

The invention of VLANs was very much welcomed by all engineers and administrators, allowing them to extend, redesign and segment their existing network ...
VLAN Networks

VTP Protocol - In-Depth Analysis

The previous article introduced the VTP protocol, we examined how it can be used within a network, to help manage VLANs and ease the administrative over...
VLAN Networks

VLANs - Access & Trunk Links

If you've read our previous article The VLAN Concept - Introduction to VLANs  then you should feel comfortable with terms such as 'VLAN', 'Sta...

Routing

Introduction to Routing Protocols

Distance Vector, Link State RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF Routing protocols were created for routers. These protocols have been designed to allow the exchan...
Routing

Interior Gateway Protocol - IGRP

IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) is a Cisco proprietary distance-vector routing protocol used in enterprise networks to exchange routing informa...
Routing

OSPF - Part 3: OSPF Adjacency & Neighbor Forming Pro...

This is the thrid article of our 6-part OSPF series (see below) that describes how OSPF routers perform neighbor relationship and adjacency. We’ll exami...
Routing

Routing Information Protocol - RIP

Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a distance-vector routing protocol that is commonly used in small to medium-sized networks. It is one of the...

SASE & SD-WAN Networks

WAN Optimization vs SD WAN Networks. Today’s Challen...

Enterprises have been successfully running WAN optimization appliances at their many distributed sites for years. The devices have done a good job of he...
Cisco Switches

Configuring SPAN On Cisco Catalyst Switches - Monito...

Being able to monitor your network traffic is essential when it comes to troubleshooting problems, performing a security audit or even casually checking...
Virtualization & VM Backup

SysAdmin Day 2020 - Get your Free Amazon Voucher & G...

SysAdmin Day has arrived, and with it, gratitude for all the unsung heroes that 2020 has needed. Your hard work has made it possible for all of us to ke...
Cisco Wireless

Configuring Cisco WLC Link Aggregation (LAG) with Po...

Cisco Wireless Controllers (WLC) support the configuration of Link Aggregation (IEEE 802.3ad - LAG) which bundles the controller ports into a single por...