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Network Cabling
The 10Base-T UTP Ethernet and 10Base-2 Coax Ethernet were very popular in the early to mid 1990's when 100 Mbps network cards and hubs/switches wer...
Domain Name System (DNS)
If you ever wondered where DNS came from, this is your chance to find out ! The quick summary on DNS's history will also help you understand why DN...
Network Cabling
The 100Base-TX (sometimes referred to 100Base-T) cable was until 2010 perhaps the most popular cable around since it has actually replaced the olde...
The OSI Model
The Session layer is responsible for setting up, managing and then tearing down sessions between Presentation layer entities. The Session layer als...

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Netflow Articles:

In our previous article we explained how a Netflow Analyzer can help you gain visibility into your user traffic, application traffic and data flows...
This article will cover the basics of Netflow, including its use cases, Netflow supported devices, Netflow history, and variants. We’ll also dive i...
Monitoring network traffic & bandwidth usage via Netflow is mandatory for any type and size network. Gaining visibility into user traffic, appl...
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) and Netflow are both popular protocols with admins, prized for their ability to give visibility over the ...

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VLAN Networks
While the VLAN Tagging article briefly covered the IEEE 802.1q protocol this article will continue building upon it by further analyzing the IEEE 802.1q...
VLAN Networks
VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol) pruning is a feature that is used in Cisco switches to reduce unnecessary traffic in VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) trun...
VLAN Networks
Deciding whether to use ISL or IEEE 802.1q to power your trunk links can be quite confusing if you cannot identify the advantages and disadvantages of e...
VLAN Networks
We mentioned that Trunk Links are designed to pass frames (packets) from all VLANs, allowing us to connect multiple switches together and independently ...

Routing
This is the third article of our OSPF series which analyzes the different OSPF States routers go through during the OSPF discovery and neighbor forming ...
Routing
IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) is a Cisco proprietary distance-vector routing protocol used in enterprise networks to exchange routing informa...
Routing
This article explains how OSPF uses Link State Advertisement (LSA) to exchange information about the network topology between routers. When a router rec...
Routing
We all understand that TCP/IP, IPX-SPX are protocols which are used in a Local Area Network (LAN) so computers can communicate between with each other a...

Cisco Routers
For years now, Cisco has been developing its Security Device Manager (SDM) software. This web-based software is designed to help the less experienced us...
Windows Servers
FREE Hyper-V & VMware Backup:  FREE for Firewall.cx readers for a Limited Time!  Download Now! Virtualization is an abstraction layer th...
Cisco Firewalls
One Appliance – One Image is what Cisco is targeting for its Next Generation Firewalls. With this vision, Cisco has created a unified software image nam...
Cisco Switches
This article provides in-depth analysis of DHCP Option 82 (DHCP Relay Agent) which is one of the +180 DHCP Options available to the DHCP protocol and us...