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Network Cabling

CAT5, CAT5e, CAT6 UTP X-Over / Cross-over Cable

The cross-over (or crossover) CAT5 UTP cable has to be one of the most used cables after the classic straight-thru cable. The cross-over cable allo...
ICMP Protocol

ICMP Protocol - Part 4: Destination Unreachable...

The 'ICMP Destination unreachable' message is quite interesting, because it doesn't actually contain one message, but infact six! This means that t...
Ethernet Protocol, CSMA/CD, Collisions

Late Ethernet Collisions

Late collisions, on the other hand, are not normal and are usually the result of out of spec. cabling or a malfunctioning adapter. A late collision...
Network Fundamentals

Network Unicast - Its role and Importance

Unicast is a communication method used in computer networking where data is sent from a single sender to a specific destination device. In th...

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Netflow Articles:

Netflow: Monitor Bandwidth & Network Utilizatio...

Monitoring network traffic & bandwidth usage via Netflow is mandatory for any type and size network. Gaining visibility into user traffic, appl...

Complete Guide to Netflow: How Netflow & its Co...

This article will cover the basics of Netflow, including its use cases, Netflow supported devices, Netflow history, and variants. We’ll also dive i...

NetFlow Analyzer: Free Download, Step-by-Step I...

In our previous article we explained how a Netflow Analyzer can help you gain visibility into your user traffic, application traffic and data flows...

Netflow vs SNMP. Two Different Approaches to Ne...

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) and Netflow are both popular protocols with admins, prized for their ability to give visibility over the ...

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VLAN Networks

VLAN Tagging - Understanding VLANs Ethernet Frames

We mentioned that Trunk Links are designed to pass frames (packets) from all VLANs, allowing us to connect multiple switches together and independently ...
VLAN Networks

VTP Pruning

VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol) pruning is a feature that is used in Cisco switches to reduce unnecessary traffic in VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) trun...
VLAN Networks

VLAN Security - Making the Most of VLANs

It's easy to see why virtual LANs have become extremely popular on networks of all sizes. In practical terms, multiple VLANs are pretty much the same as...
VLAN Networks

The VLAN Concept - Introduction to VLANs

We hear about them everywhere, vendors around the world are constantly trying to push them into every type of network and as a result, the Local Area Ne...

Routing

OSPF - Part 3: OSPF Adjacency & Neighbor Forming Pro...

This is the thrid article of our 6-part OSPF series (see below) that describes how OSPF routers perform neighbor relationship and adjacency. We’ll exami...
Routing

Introduction to Routing Protocols

Distance Vector, Link State RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF Routing protocols were created for routers. These protocols have been designed to allow the exchan...
Routing

The IP Routing Process - Step-by-Step Analysis

We are going to analyse what happens when routing occurs on a network (IP routing process). When I was new to the networking area, I thought that all yo...
Routing

Link State Routing Protocols

Link State routing protocols do not view networks in terms of adjacent routers and hop counts, but they build a comprehensive view of the overall networ...

Windows Servers

Guide to Windows Server 2016 Hyper-V Hypervisor: New...

One of Windows Server 2016 highlights is the newer Hyper-V server that not only extends the hypervisor’s features and capabilities but also introduces a...
Cisco Firewalls

Cisco ASA 5500-X Series Firewall with IPS, ASA CX & ...

The Cisco ASA Firewall 5500-X series has evolved from the previous ASA 5500 Firewall series, designed to protect mission critical corporate networks and...
Windows Servers

Deploying Active Directory & DNS Services on Windows...

This article provides a comprehensive guide to deploying Active Directory and DNS Services on Windows Server 2022, encompassing the Essential, Standard,...
Virtualization & VM Backup

Understanding Deduplication. Complete Guide to Dedup...

When considering your VM backup solution, key features such as deduplication are incredibly important. This is not simply from a cost perspective but al...