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Domain Name System (DNS)
This section will deal with the analysis of the DNS packets by examining how DNS messages are formatted and the options and variables they contain....
Network Cabling
The 100Base-TX (sometimes referred to 100Base-T) cable was until 2010 perhaps the most popular cable around since it has actually replaced the olde...
Ethernet Protocol, CSMA/CD, Collisions
In this example, we will refer to an imaginary Ethernet network consisting of Stations A and B and any number of other stations. The status of the ...
Subnetting
Routing and Communication between subnets is the main topic here. This article analyses communications between subnets. We provide examples on diff...

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Netflow Articles:

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) and Netflow are both popular protocols with admins, prized for their ability to give visibility over the ...
This article will cover the basics of Netflow, including its use cases, Netflow supported devices, Netflow history, and variants. We’ll also dive i...
Monitoring network traffic & bandwidth usage via Netflow is mandatory for any type and size network. Gaining visibility into user traffic, appl...
In our previous article we explained how a Netflow Analyzer can help you gain visibility into your user traffic, application traffic and data flows...

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VLAN Networks
The invention of VLANs was very much welcomed by all engineers and administrators, allowing them to extend, redesign and segment their existing network ...
VLAN Networks
VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol) pruning is a feature that is used in Cisco switches to reduce unnecessary traffic in VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) trun...
VLAN Networks
While the VLAN Tagging article briefly covered the IEEE 802.1q protocol this article will continue building upon it by further analyzing the IEEE 802.1q...
VLAN Networks
VLANs are usually created by the network administrator, assigning each port of every switch to a VLAN. Depending on the network infrastructure and secur...

Routing
This article explains how OSPF uses Link State Advertisement (LSA) to exchange information about the network topology between routers. When a router rec...
Routing
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a distance-vector routing protocol that is commonly used in small to medium-sized networks. It is one of the...
Routing
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a popular routing protocol developed for Internet Protocol (IP) networks by the Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) worki...
Routing
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP), similar to IGRP, is a Cisco proprietary routing protocol that is used to exchange routing informatio...

Cisco Routers
This article shows how to configure the embedded or integrated access point in a Cisco 880W series router (e.g Cisco 887W, Cisco 886W, Cisco 881W, Cisco...
Palo Alto Networks
During the past decade, we’ve seen the global IT security market flooded with new network security and firewall security appliances. New vendors emergin...
Network Protocol Analyzers
This article explains how to detect a SYN Flood Attack using an advanced protocol analyser like Colasoft Capsa. We’ll show you how to identify and inspe...
SASE & SD-WAN Networks
Enterprises have been successfully running WAN optimization appliances at their many distributed sites for years. The devices have done a good job of he...