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ICMP Protocol

ICMP Protocol - Part 1: Introduction

The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), is a very popular protocol and actually part of an Internet Protocol (IP) implementation. Because IP ...
Network Fundamentals

Multicast - Understand How IP Multicast Works

Multicast is a communication method used in computer networking where data is sent from a single sender to a group of destination devices. In this...
Subnetting

IP Subnetting - Part 2: Subnet Masks & Their Ef...

There are a few different ways to approach subnetting and it can get confusing because of the complexity of some subnets and the flexibility they o...
Domain Name System (DNS)

The DNS Protocol - Part 4: DNS Response Message...

The previous article covered the DNS Query message formats. In the article we analysed them in great detail and showed how various options are sele...

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Netflow Articles:

Netflow: Monitor Bandwidth & Network Utilizatio...

Monitoring network traffic & bandwidth usage via Netflow is mandatory for any type and size network. Gaining visibility into user traffic, appl...

NetFlow Analyzer: Free Download, Step-by-Step I...

In our previous article we explained how a Netflow Analyzer can help you gain visibility into your user traffic, application traffic and data flows...

Complete Guide to Netflow: How Netflow & its Co...

This article will cover the basics of Netflow, including its use cases, Netflow supported devices, Netflow history, and variants. We’ll also dive i...

Netflow vs SNMP. Two Different Approaches to Ne...

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) and Netflow are both popular protocols with admins, prized for their ability to give visibility over the ...

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VLAN Networks

VLAN InterSwitch Link (ISL) Protocol Analysis

Deciding whether to use ISL or IEEE 802.1q to power your trunk links can be quite confusing if you cannot identify the advantages and disadvantages of e...
VLAN Networks

Comparing Traditional Flat & VLAN Networks

Designing and building a network is not a simple job. VLANs are no exception to this rule, in fact they require a more sophisticated approach because of...
VLAN Networks

VLANs - Access & Trunk Links

If you've read our previous article The VLAN Concept - Introduction to VLANs  then you should feel comfortable with terms such as 'VLAN', 'Sta...
VLAN Networks

Dynamic VLANs

Dynamic VLANs were introduced to grant the flexibility and complexity(!) that Static VLANs did not provide. Dynamic VLANs are quite rare because of thei...

Routing

Link State Routing Protocols

Link State routing protocols do not view networks in terms of adjacent routers and hop counts, but they build a comprehensive view of the overall networ...
Routing

Routing Information Protocol - RIP

Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a distance-vector routing protocol that is commonly used in small to medium-sized networks. It is one of the...
Routing

Interior Gateway Protocol - IGRP

IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) is a Cisco proprietary distance-vector routing protocol used in enterprise networks to exchange routing informa...
Routing

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol - EIGRP

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP), similar to IGRP, is a Cisco proprietary routing protocol that is used to exchange routing informatio...

Windows Servers

How to Recover & Create "Show Desktop" Icon Function...

The Show Desktop feature, included with almost all versions of Windows up to Windows 7, allows a user to minimize or restore all open programs and easil...
Windows Servers

Windows Server 2016 Licensing Made Easy – Understand...

This article describes the new Windows Server 2016 Licensing model (per-core licensing) Microsoft has implemented for its new server-based operating sys...
SASE & SD-WAN Networks

SASE and VPNs: Reconsidering your Mobile Remote Acce...

The Virtual Private Network (VPN) has become the go to security solution for keeping communications between networks and endpoints secure. After all, VP...
Palo Alto Networks

Introduction to Palo Alto Next-Generation Network Fi...

During the past decade, we’ve seen the global IT security market flooded with new network security and firewall security appliances. New vendors emergin...