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Network Fundamentals: Top Picks

Network Fundamentals

Network Unicast - Its role and Importance

Unicast is a communication method used in computer networking where data is sent from a single sender to a specific destination device. In th...
Network Fundamentals

Multicast - Understand How IP Multicast Works

Multicast is a communication method used in computer networking where data is sent from a single sender to a group of destination devices. In this...
Network Fundamentals

Power over Ethernet - Understanding PoE Technol...

Power over Ethernet (PoE) was invented by PowerDsine back in 1997 and the first power injector (Midspan) was installed in 1998! Many manufacturespa...
Network Fundamentals

Network Switches & Bridges

Network Switches are the evolution of Hubs and Repeaters, and enable the creation of networks by connecting multiple devices together. They are cri...

Featured Subcategories:

Netflow Articles:

Netflow

Netflow vs SNMP. Two Different Approaches to Ne...

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) and Netflow are both popular protocols with admins, prized for their ability to give visibility over the ...
Netflow

NetFlow Analyzer: Free Download, Step-by-Step I...

In our previous article we explained how a Netflow Analyzer can help you gain visibility into your user traffic, application traffic and data flows...
Netflow

Netflow: Monitor Bandwidth & Network Utilizatio...

Monitoring network traffic & bandwidth usage via Netflow is mandatory for any type and size network. Gaining visibility into user traffic, appl...
Netflow

Complete Guide to Netflow: How Netflow & its Co...

This article will cover the basics of Netflow, including its use cases, Netflow supported devices, Netflow history, and variants. We’ll also dive i...

Network Protocols:

IP Protocol

IP Protocol - Part 2: The Internet Protocol (IP...

This article examines the Internet Protocol (IP) and its position within the OSI Model. We take a look at the IP Header and all fields contained wi...
TCP - UDP Protocol Analysis

UDP Protocol - Header

This article covers the UDP protocol. We examine the structure of the UDP header, the protocols that use UDP as a transport plus a lot more. Some ...
Supernetting & CIDR

The Supernetting / CIDR Chart

This articles build upon our previous pages covering  what is Supernetting (Route Summarization) & How Supernets Work and Supernetting In-...
TCP - UDP Protocol Analysis

Transmission Control Protocol - Part 4: In-Dept...

This article is an introduction to the 7-page TCP Header analysis section that follows. We briefly view each section of the TCP Header and then mov...
Subnetting

IP Subnetting - Part 5: Subnetting Guidelines

There is always that day when you are called upon to provide a solution to a network problem. The number of problems that can occur in a network ar...
TCP - UDP Protocol Analysis

TCP Header Anaylsis - Section 7: TCP Data Paylo...

Finally, the last page of our incredible TCP Analysis. As most of you would expect, this section is dedicated to the DATA section that follows the ...
Subnetting

IP Subnetting - Part 4: Routing Between Subnets

Routing and Communication between subnets is the main topic here. This article analyses communications between subnets. We provide examples on diff...
Subnetting

IP Subnet Calculator

This free online Subnet Calculator provides a fast and easy way to calculate all aspects of any IP Address and Subnet Mask. Simply enter your des...

STP/ICMP Protocols:

ICMP Protocol

ICMP Protocol - Part 1: Introduction

The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), is a very popular protocol and actually part of an Internet Protocol (IP) implementation. Because IP ...
ICMP Protocol

ICMP Protocol - Part 6: Redirect Messages

The ICMP - Redirect Message is always sent from a gateway to the host and the example below will illustrate when this is used. Putting it simply (...
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)

Spanning Tree Protocol – Part 3: Bridge ID, Pri...

In this article we will examine the Spanning Tree Bridge ID structure, explain why it has increments of 4096, how VLAN information is embedded (for...
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)

Spanning Tree Protocol – Part 2: Rapid STP Port...

Spanning Tree Protocol, Rapid STP port costs and port states are an essential part of the STP algorithm that affect how STP decides to forward or b...

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VLAN Networks

VTP Protocol - In-Depth Analysis

The previous article introduced the VTP protocol, we examined how it can be used within a network, to help manage VLANs and ease the administrative over...
VLAN Networks

VLAN Tagging - Understanding VLANs Ethernet Frames

We mentioned that Trunk Links are designed to pass frames (packets) from all VLANs, allowing us to connect multiple switches together and independently ...
VLAN Networks

VTP Introduction & Modes

The invention of VLANs was very much welcomed by all engineers and administrators, allowing them to extend, redesign and segment their existing network ...
VLAN Networks

Static VLANs

VLANs are usually created by the network administrator, assigning each port of every switch to a VLAN. Depending on the network infrastructure and secur...

Routing

Distance Vector Routing Protocols

Distance Vector routing protocols use frequent broadcasts (255.255.255.255 or FF:FF:FF:FF) of their entire routing table every 30 sec. on all their inte...
Routing

Link State Routing Protocols

Link State routing protocols do not view networks in terms of adjacent routers and hop counts, but they build a comprehensive view of the overall networ...
Routing

Introduction to Routing Protocols

Distance Vector, Link State RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF Routing protocols were created for routers. These protocols have been designed to allow the exchan...
Routing

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol - EIGRP

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP), similar to IGRP, is a Cisco proprietary routing protocol that is used to exchange routing informatio...

Network Address Translation - NAT

Dynamic NAT - Part 2

Our previous article, Dynamic NAT - Part 1, covered the basic idea of Dynamic Network Address Translation. We are now going to take a closer look at the...
Network Address Translation - NAT

The Network Address Translation Table

After that simple and informative introduction to the NAT concept, it's time to find out more about how it works and this is where the NAT table comes i...
Network Address Translation - NAT

Static NAT - Part 2

The previous page (Static NAT - Part 1) helped us understand what exactly happens with Static NAT and how it works, and we saw a few examples of how to ...
Network Address Translation - NAT

Network Address Translation (NAT) Overload - Part 1

NAT Overload is the most common NAT method used throughout all networks that connect to the Internet. This is because of the way it functions and the li...