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Network Cabling

CAT5, CAT5e, CAT6 UTP X-Over / Cross-over Cable

The cross-over (or crossover) CAT5 UTP cable has to be one of the most used cables after the classic straight-thru cable. The cross-over cable allo...
TCP - UDP Protocol Analysis

TCP Header Anaylsis - Section 7: TCP Data Paylo...

Finally, the last page of our incredible TCP Analysis. As most of you would expect, this section is dedicated to the DATA section that follows the ...
Network Protocols

Introduction To The ISDN Protocol

ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) is a digital telephone standard designed to replace analogue connections by utilising ordinary copper wi...
ICMP Protocol

ICMP Protocol - Part 7: Time Exceeded Message A...

The ICMP - Time Exceeded message is one which is usually created by gateways or routers. In order to fully understand this ICMP message, you must b...

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Netflow Articles:

Complete Guide to Netflow: How Netflow & its Co...

This article will cover the basics of Netflow, including its use cases, Netflow supported devices, Netflow history, and variants. We’ll also dive i...

NetFlow Analyzer: Free Download, Step-by-Step I...

In our previous article we explained how a Netflow Analyzer can help you gain visibility into your user traffic, application traffic and data flows...

Netflow: Monitor Bandwidth & Network Utilizatio...

Monitoring network traffic & bandwidth usage via Netflow is mandatory for any type and size network. Gaining visibility into user traffic, appl...

Netflow vs SNMP. Two Different Approaches to Ne...

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) and Netflow are both popular protocols with admins, prized for their ability to give visibility over the ...

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VLAN Networks

The VLAN Concept - Introduction to VLANs

We hear about them everywhere, vendors around the world are constantly trying to push them into every type of network and as a result, the Local Area Ne...
VLAN Networks

VLANs - IEEE 802.1q Trunk Link Protocol Analysis

While the VLAN Tagging article briefly covered the IEEE 802.1q protocol this article will continue building upon it by further analyzing the IEEE 802.1q...
VLAN Networks

Dynamic VLANs

Dynamic VLANs were introduced to grant the flexibility and complexity(!) that Static VLANs did not provide. Dynamic VLANs are quite rare because of thei...
VLAN Networks

VLAN InterSwitch Link (ISL) Protocol Analysis

Deciding whether to use ISL or IEEE 802.1q to power your trunk links can be quite confusing if you cannot identify the advantages and disadvantages of e...

Routing

OSPF - Part 2: How OSPF Protocol Works & Basic Conce...

This article covers basic OSPF concepts and operation. We explain how OSPF works, how OSPF tables are built on an OSPF-enabled router and their purpose ...
Routing

Hybrid Routing Protocols - Advantages and Disadvanta...

Hybrid routing protocols are a combination of distance-vector and link-state routing protocols, and are used to provide a more efficient and scala...
Routing

Distance Vector Routing Protocols

Distance Vector routing protocols use frequent broadcasts (255.255.255.255 or FF:FF:FF:FF) of their entire routing table every 30 sec. on all their inte...
Routing

OSPF - Part 5: Analysis of OSPF Link State Update (L...

This article explains how OSPF uses Link State Advertisement (LSA) to exchange information about the network topology between routers. When a router rec...

Cisco Routers

Introduction To Routers

Welcome to the Routers section. Here we will analyse routers quite some depth; what they do and how they work. We must point out that knowlege on the OS...
Cisco Routers

How to Capture Packets on your Cisco Router with Emb...

If you’re tired of setting up SPAN sessions to capture network traffic transiting your network and Cisco router, it’s time to start using Cisco’s Embedd...
Cisco Routers

How To Configure Router On A Stick - 802.1q Trunk To...

Router-on-a-stick is a term frequently used to describe a setup up that consists of a router and switch connected using one Ethernet link configured as ...
Windows Servers

Understanding, Creating, Configuring & Applying Wind...

This article explains what Group Policies are and shows how to configure Windows Server 2012 Active Directory Group Policies. Our next article will cove...