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The OSI Model

The OSI Model: Layer 2 - Datalink Layer

The Datalink ensures that messages are delivered to the proper device and translates messages from the Network layer into bits for the Physical lay...
IP Protocol

IP Protocol - Part 1: Binary & The Internet Pro...

To understand the Internet Protocol, we need to learn and understand Binary. It is very important to know and understand Binary because part of the...
Network Fundamentals

Multicast - Understand How IP Multicast Works

Multicast is a communication method used in computer networking where data is sent from a single sender to a group of destination devices. In this...
Network Fundamentals

Network Data Transmission

Network data transmission refers to the process of sending and receiving information between two or more devices connected to a network. It is a cr...

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Netflow Articles:

NetFlow Analyzer: Free Download, Step-by-Step I...

In our previous article we explained how a Netflow Analyzer can help you gain visibility into your user traffic, application traffic and data flows...

Netflow vs SNMP. Two Different Approaches to Ne...

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) and Netflow are both popular protocols with admins, prized for their ability to give visibility over the ...

Netflow: Monitor Bandwidth & Network Utilizatio...

Monitoring network traffic & bandwidth usage via Netflow is mandatory for any type and size network. Gaining visibility into user traffic, appl...

Complete Guide to Netflow: How Netflow & its Co...

This article will cover the basics of Netflow, including its use cases, Netflow supported devices, Netflow history, and variants. We’ll also dive i...

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VLAN Networks

VTP Protocol - In-Depth Analysis

The previous article introduced the VTP protocol, we examined how it can be used within a network, to help manage VLANs and ease the administrative over...
VLAN Networks

VLANs - Access & Trunk Links

If you've read our previous article The VLAN Concept - Introduction to VLANs  then you should feel comfortable with terms such as 'VLAN', 'Sta...
VLAN Networks

VLAN InterSwitch Link (ISL) Protocol Analysis

Deciding whether to use ISL or IEEE 802.1q to power your trunk links can be quite confusing if you cannot identify the advantages and disadvantages of e...
VLAN Networks

InterVLAN Routing - Routing between VLAN Networks

This article deals with the popular topic of InterVLAN routing, which is used to allow routing & communication between VLAN networks. Our article an...

Routing

Hybrid Routing Protocols - Advantages and Disadvanta...

Hybrid routing protocols are a combination of distance-vector and link-state routing protocols, and are used to provide a more efficient and scala...
Routing

OSPF - Part 3: OSPF Adjacency & Neighbor Forming Pro...

This is the thrid article of our 6-part OSPF series (see below) that describes how OSPF routers perform neighbor relationship and adjacency. We’ll exami...
Routing

OSPF - Part 6: OSPF LSA Types - Purpose and Function...

Our previous article explained the purpose of Link State Update (LSU) packets and examined the Link State Advertisement (LSA) information contained with...
Routing

Distance Vector Routing Protocols

Distance Vector routing protocols use frequent broadcasts (255.255.255.255 or FF:FF:FF:FF) of their entire routing table every 30 sec. on all their inte...

Palo Alto Networks

How to Manually Download, Import & Install PAN-OS on...

This article provides comprehensive guidance on the manual processes involved in downloading, uploading, and installing (import) any PAN-OS version on a...
Cisco Switches

End-of-Sale and End-of-Life Announcement for the Cis...

Cisco announces the end-of-sale and end-of-life dates for the Cisco Catalyst 3750G, 3560G, 3750-E, and 3560-E Series Switches. The last day to order the...
Cisco Routers

Configuring Policy-Based Routing (PBR) with IP SLA T...

What is Policy-Based Routing? Policy-Based Routing (PBR) is a very popular feature in Cisco routers, it allows the creation of policies that can select...
Windows Servers

Easy, Fast & Reliable Hyper-V & VMware Backup with A...

As more companies around the world adopt the virtualization technology to increase efficiency and productivity, Microsoft’s Hyper-V virtualization platf...