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Network Protocols

File Transfer Protocol - FTP

File transfer is among the most frequently used TCP/IP applications and it accounts for a lot of the network traffic on the Internet. Various stand...
TCP - UDP Protocol Analysis

Transmission Control Protocol - Part 2: Quick O...

As previously mentioned on a number of occasions, TCP is one of the two protocols that lives at the Transport layer and is used to carry data from ...
Domain Name System (DNS)

The DNS Protocol - Part 4: DNS Response Message...

The previous article covered the DNS Query message formats. In the article we analysed them in great detail and showed how various options are sele...
Subnetting

IP Subnetting - Part 2: Subnet Masks & Their Ef...

There are a few different ways to approach subnetting and it can get confusing because of the complexity of some subnets and the flexibility they o...

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Netflow Articles:

Complete Guide to Netflow: How Netflow & its Co...

This article will cover the basics of Netflow, including its use cases, Netflow supported devices, Netflow history, and variants. We’ll also dive i...

Netflow vs SNMP. Two Different Approaches to Ne...

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) and Netflow are both popular protocols with admins, prized for their ability to give visibility over the ...

Netflow: Monitor Bandwidth & Network Utilizatio...

Monitoring network traffic & bandwidth usage via Netflow is mandatory for any type and size network. Gaining visibility into user traffic, appl...

NetFlow Analyzer: Free Download, Step-by-Step I...

In our previous article we explained how a Netflow Analyzer can help you gain visibility into your user traffic, application traffic and data flows...

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VLAN Networks

The VLAN Concept - Introduction to VLANs

We hear about them everywhere, vendors around the world are constantly trying to push them into every type of network and as a result, the Local Area Ne...
VLAN Networks

VTP Pruning

VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol) pruning is a feature that is used in Cisco switches to reduce unnecessary traffic in VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) trun...
VLAN Networks

VLAN Tagging - Understanding VLANs Ethernet Frames

We mentioned that Trunk Links are designed to pass frames (packets) from all VLANs, allowing us to connect multiple switches together and independently ...
VLAN Networks

VLAN Security - Making the Most of VLANs

It's easy to see why virtual LANs have become extremely popular on networks of all sizes. In practical terms, multiple VLANs are pretty much the same as...

Routing

OSPF - Part 6: OSPF LSA Types - Purpose and Function...

Our previous article explained the purpose of Link State Update (LSU) packets and examined the Link State Advertisement (LSA) information contained with...
Routing

OSPF - Part 2: How OSPF Protocol Works & Basic Conce...

This article covers basic OSPF concepts and operation. We explain how OSPF works, how OSPF tables are built on an OSPF-enabled router and their purpose ...
Routing

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol - EIGRP

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP), similar to IGRP, is a Cisco proprietary routing protocol that is used to exchange routing informatio...
Routing

Hybrid Routing Protocols - Advantages and Disadvanta...

Hybrid routing protocols are a combination of distance-vector and link-state routing protocols, and are used to provide a more efficient and scala...

Palo Alto Networks

Palo Alto Firewalls Security Zones – Tap Zone, Virtu...

Palo Alto Networks Next-Generation Firewalls rely on the concept of security zones in order to apply security policies. This means that access lists (fi...
Windows Servers

Free Hyper-V eBook - Create, Manage and Troubleshoot...

With the introduction of Hyper-V on the Windows Server platform, virtualization has quickly become the de facto standard for all companies seeking to co...
Windows Servers

Windows 2003 DHCP Server Installation & Configuration

DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is a protocol that allows clients on a network to request network configuration settings from a server runnin...
Cisco Switches

Cisco Catalyst Err-disabled Port State, Enable & Dis...

Errdisable is a feature that automatically disables a port on a Cisco Catalyst switch. When a port is error disabled, it is effectively shut down a...