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Suggested Articles:

Network Address Translation - NAT

Dynamic NAT - Part 2

Our previous article, Dynamic NAT - Part 1, covered the basic idea of Dynamic Network Address Translation. We are now going to take a closer look a...
TCP - UDP Protocol Analysis

TCP Header Anaylsis - Section 7: TCP Data Paylo...

Finally, the last page of our incredible TCP Analysis. As most of you would expect, this section is dedicated to the DATA section that follows the ...
Network Protocols

Trivial File Transport Protocol - TFTP

TFTP is a file transport protocol and its name suggests it's something close to the FTP protocol (File Transfer Protocol), which is true .. to a de...
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)

Spanning Tree Protocol – Part 3: Bridge ID, Pri...

In this article we will examine the Spanning Tree Bridge ID structure, explain why it has increments of 4096, how VLAN information is embedded (for...

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Netflow Articles:

Netflow vs SNMP. Two Different Approaches to Ne...

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) and Netflow are both popular protocols with admins, prized for their ability to give visibility over the ...

Complete Guide to Netflow: How Netflow & its Co...

This article will cover the basics of Netflow, including its use cases, Netflow supported devices, Netflow history, and variants. We’ll also dive i...

NetFlow Analyzer: Free Download, Step-by-Step I...

In our previous article we explained how a Netflow Analyzer can help you gain visibility into your user traffic, application traffic and data flows...

Netflow: Monitor Bandwidth & Network Utilizatio...

Monitoring network traffic & bandwidth usage via Netflow is mandatory for any type and size network. Gaining visibility into user traffic, appl...

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VLAN Networks

VTP Protocol - In-Depth Analysis

The previous article introduced the VTP protocol, we examined how it can be used within a network, to help manage VLANs and ease the administrative over...
VLAN Networks

VLANs - IEEE 802.1q Trunk Link Protocol Analysis

While the VLAN Tagging article briefly covered the IEEE 802.1q protocol this article will continue building upon it by further analyzing the IEEE 802.1q...
VLAN Networks

VTP Pruning

VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol) pruning is a feature that is used in Cisco switches to reduce unnecessary traffic in VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) trun...
VLAN Networks

Dynamic VLANs

Dynamic VLANs were introduced to grant the flexibility and complexity(!) that Static VLANs did not provide. Dynamic VLANs are quite rare because of thei...

Routing

OSPF - Part 2: How OSPF Protocol Works & Basic Conce...

This article covers basic OSPF concepts and operation. We explain how OSPF works, how OSPF tables are built on an OSPF-enabled router and their purpose ...
Routing

OSPF - Part 5: Analysis of OSPF Link State Update (L...

This article explains how OSPF uses Link State Advertisement (LSA) to exchange information about the network topology between routers. When a router rec...
Routing

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol - EIGRP

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP), similar to IGRP, is a Cisco proprietary routing protocol that is used to exchange routing informatio...
Routing

Interior Gateway Protocol - IGRP

IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) is a Cisco proprietary distance-vector routing protocol used in enterprise networks to exchange routing informa...

Cisco Routers

Cisco Router Basic ISDN Configuration

Configuration of ISDN interfaces on Cisco routers are usually considered a straight-forward process, however there are some details which can cause your...
SASE & SD-WAN Networks

The Need for a Converged SASE Platform. Converging N...

The digital transformation is pushing applications to the cloud, the 2020-2022 pandemic shifted employees to work from home, and the number of resulting...
Virtualization & VM Backup

6 Key Areas to Consider When Selecting a VM Backup S...

Backup and Disaster recovery are core considerations for any business with an IT footprint, whether that is on-premises or in the cloud. Your business ...
Windows Servers

New Features in Windows Server 2012 - Why Upgrade t...

There is no doubt that Cloud Computing is hot topic these days. Innovations in cloud computing models have made every industry and company IT department...