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IP Protocol
This article explains the 'Network-ID' and 'Host-ID' concept found in IP addressing and subnetting. We analyse the structure of IP addresses and ne...
Ethernet Protocol, CSMA/CD, Collisions
The word "Collision" shouldn't be any new news to people who work with networks everyday. If it is thought, don't worrie, that's why you are here. ...
Network Address Translation - NAT
NAT Overload is the most common NAT method used throughout all networks that connect to the Internet. This is because of the way it functions and t...
Supernetting & CIDR
This articles build upon our previous pages covering  what is Supernetting (Route Summarization) & How Supernets Work and Supernetting In-...

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Netflow Articles:

This article will cover the basics of Netflow, including its use cases, Netflow supported devices, Netflow history, and variants. We’ll also dive i...
In our previous article we explained how a Netflow Analyzer can help you gain visibility into your user traffic, application traffic and data flows...
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) and Netflow are both popular protocols with admins, prized for their ability to give visibility over the ...
Monitoring network traffic & bandwidth usage via Netflow is mandatory for any type and size network. Gaining visibility into user traffic, appl...

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VLAN Networks
We mentioned that Trunk Links are designed to pass frames (packets) from all VLANs, allowing us to connect multiple switches together and independently ...
VLAN Networks
Dynamic VLANs were introduced to grant the flexibility and complexity(!) that Static VLANs did not provide. Dynamic VLANs are quite rare because of thei...
VLAN Networks
While the VLAN Tagging article briefly covered the IEEE 802.1q protocol this article will continue building upon it by further analyzing the IEEE 802.1q...
VLAN Networks
VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol) pruning is a feature that is used in Cisco switches to reduce unnecessary traffic in VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) trun...

Routing
This article explains how OSPF uses Link State Advertisement (LSA) to exchange information about the network topology between routers. When a router rec...
Routing
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a distance-vector routing protocol that is commonly used in small to medium-sized networks. It is one of the...
Routing
We all understand that TCP/IP, IPX-SPX are protocols which are used in a Local Area Network (LAN) so computers can communicate between with each other a...
Routing
Hybrid routing protocols are a combination of distance-vector and link-state routing protocols, and are used to provide a more efficient and scala...

Virtualization & VM Backup
SysAdmin Day has arrived, and with it, gratitude for all the unsung heroes that 2020 has needed. Your hard work has made it possible for all of us to ke...
Cisco Routers
Chances are we’ve all needed to upgrade our Cisco’s device IOS software at some point. While upgrading the IOS software on a Cisco device is considered ...
Windows Servers
The Windows Server 2008 first carried FSRM or Fie Server Resources Manager, which allowed administrators to define the file types that users could save ...
Cisco Switches
This article focuses on VLAN Security and its implementation within the business network environment. We provide tips and Cisco CLI commands that will h...