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The OSI Model

The OSI Model: Layer 3 - Network Layer

The Network layer is responsible for routing through an internetwork and for networking addressing. This means that the Network layer is responsibl...
Ethernet Protocol, CSMA/CD, Collisions

Differences Between Classic Ethernet And Fast E...

The two primary areas for concern when upgrading the network from 10Mbps to 100Mbps are cabling and hubs. As discussed on the Fast Ethernet Introdu...
Ethernet Protocol, CSMA/CD, Collisions

Early Ethernet Collisions

In this example, we will refer to an imaginary Ethernet network consisting of Stations A and B and any number of other stations. The status of the ...
Network Fundamentals

Media Access Control - MAC Addresses

A MAC address, or Media Access Control address, is a unique identifier assigned to a network interface controller (NIC) for use as a network addr...

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Netflow Articles:

Netflow: Monitor Bandwidth & Network Utilizatio...

Monitoring network traffic & bandwidth usage via Netflow is mandatory for any type and size network. Gaining visibility into user traffic, appl...

Netflow vs SNMP. Two Different Approaches to Ne...

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) and Netflow are both popular protocols with admins, prized for their ability to give visibility over the ...

NetFlow Analyzer: Free Download, Step-by-Step I...

In our previous article we explained how a Netflow Analyzer can help you gain visibility into your user traffic, application traffic and data flows...

Complete Guide to Netflow: How Netflow & its Co...

This article will cover the basics of Netflow, including its use cases, Netflow supported devices, Netflow history, and variants. We’ll also dive i...

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VLAN Networks

The VLAN Concept - Introduction to VLANs

We hear about them everywhere, vendors around the world are constantly trying to push them into every type of network and as a result, the Local Area Ne...
VLAN Networks

Dynamic VLANs

Dynamic VLANs were introduced to grant the flexibility and complexity(!) that Static VLANs did not provide. Dynamic VLANs are quite rare because of thei...
VLAN Networks

Static VLANs

VLANs are usually created by the network administrator, assigning each port of every switch to a VLAN. Depending on the network infrastructure and secur...
VLAN Networks

VLANs - Access & Trunk Links

If you've read our previous article The VLAN Concept - Introduction to VLANs  then you should feel comfortable with terms such as 'VLAN', 'Sta...

Routing

OSPF - Part 6: OSPF LSA Types - Purpose and Function...

Our previous article explained the purpose of Link State Update (LSU) packets and examined the Link State Advertisement (LSA) information contained with...
Routing

Link State Routing Protocols

Link State routing protocols do not view networks in terms of adjacent routers and hop counts, but they build a comprehensive view of the overall networ...
Routing

Hybrid Routing Protocols - Advantages and Disadvanta...

Hybrid routing protocols are a combination of distance-vector and link-state routing protocols, and are used to provide a more efficient and scala...
Routing

OSPF - Part 4: OSPF Neighbor States – OSPF Neighbor ...

This is the third article of our OSPF series which analyzes the different OSPF States routers go through during the OSPF discovery and neighbor forming ...

Cisco Switches

Installation and Setup of Cisco SG500-52P - 500 Seri...

The SG500 series Cisco switches are the next step up from the already popular SG300 Layer-3 switches. Cisco introduced the SG Small Business series swit...
SASE & SD-WAN Networks

MPLS vs. SD-WAN vs. Internet vs. Cloud Network. Conn...

The Wide Area Network (WAN) is the backbone of the business. It ties together the remote locations, headquarters and data centers into an integrated net...
Cisco Routers

How to Restrict Cisco IOS Router VPN Client to Layer...

In our article Cisco VPN Client Configuration - Setup for IOS Router  we explained how to setup up a Cisco IOS router to support Cisco IPSec VPN cl...
Cisco Switches

Basic & Advanced Catalyst Layer 3 Switch Configurati...

This article covers basic and advanced configuration of Cisco Catalyst Layer-3 switches such as the Cisco Catalyst 3560G, 3560E, 3560-X, 3750, 3750E, 37...