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How to Use Multi-Segment Analysis to Troubleshoot Network Delay, Packet Loss and Retransmissions with Colasoft nChronos

Posted in Hot Product Reviews

How to Use Multi-Segment Analysis to Troubleshoot Network Delay, Packet Loss and Retransmissions with Colasoft nChronos - 5.0 out of 5 based on 19 votes

network-troubleshooting-multi-segment-analysis-with-nchronos-00Troubleshooting network problems can be a very intensive and challenging process. Intermittent network problems are even more difficult to troubleshoot as the problem occurs at random times with a random duration, making it very hard to capture the necessary information, perform troubleshooting, identify and resolve the network problem.
 
While Network Analyzers help reveal problems in a network data flow, they are limited to examining usually only one network link at a time, thus seriously limiting the ability to examine multiple network segments continuously.

Colasoft’s nChronos is equipped with a neat feature called multi-segment analysis, providing an easy way for IT network engineers and administrators to compare the performance between different links. IT network engineers can improve network performance by enhancing the capacity of the link according to the comparison.

Let’s take a look how we can use Colasoft nChronos’s multi-segment analysis feature to help us detect and deal effectively with our network problems.

Multi-segment analysis provides concurrent analysis for conversations across different links, from which we can extract valuable information on packet loss, network delay, data retransmission and more.

Download your copy of nChronos and begin analyzing your network now!

To being, we open nChronos Console and select a portion of the trend chart in the Link Analysis window, then from the Summary window below, we right-click one conversation under the IP Conversation or TCP Conversation tab. From the pop-up menu, select Multi-Segment Analysis to open the Multi-Segment Analysis window:

Understanding SQL Injection Attacks & How They Work. Identify SQL Injection Code & PHP Caveats

Posted in Security Articles

Understanding SQL Injection Attacks & How They Work. Identify SQL Injection Code & PHP Caveats - 5.0 out of 5 based on 2 votes

Introduction-to-SQL-Injection-01SQL Injections have been keeping security experts busy for over a decade now as they continue to be one of the most common type of attacks against webservers, websites and web application servers. In this article, we explain what a SQL injection is, show you SQL injection examples and analyse how these type of attacks manage to exploit web applications and webservers, providing hackers access to sensitive data.

Additional interesting Web Hacking and Web Security content:

What is a SQL Injection?

Websites operate typically with two sides to them: the frontend and backendThe frontend is the element we see, the rendered HTML, images, and so forth.  On the backend however, there are layers upon layers of systems rendering the elements for the frontend. One such layer, the database, most commonly uses a database language called SQL, or Structured Query Language. This standardized language provides a logical, human-readable sentence to perform definition, manipulation, or control instructions on relational data in tabular form. The problem, however, is while this provides a structure for human readability, it also opens up a major problem for security.

Typically, when data is provided from the frontend to the backend of a website – e.g. an HTML form with username and password fields – this data is inserted into the sentence of a SQL query. This is because rather than assign that data to some object or via a set() function, the data has to be concatenated into the middle of a string. As if you were printing out a concatenated string of debug text and a variable’s value, SQL queries work in much the same way. The problem, however, is because the database server, such as MySQL or PostgreSQL, must be able to lexically analyse and understand the sentence’s grammar and parse variable=value definitions. There must exist certain specific requirements, such as wrapping string values in quotes. A SQL injection vulnerability, therefore, is where unsanitized frontend data, such as quotation marks, can disrupt the intended sentence of a SQL query.

How Does a SQL Injection Work?

How to Add and Remove Applications from Windows 8 / 8.1 Start Screen

Posted in Windows 8 & Windows 8.1

How to Add and Remove Applications from Windows 8 / 8.1 Start Screen - 5.0 out of 5 based on 1 vote

In this article, we'll show you how to add (pin) and remove (unpin) any application from the Windows 8 or Windows 8.1 Metro Start Screen. Tiles or the small squares and rectangles appearing on the Windows 8 Metro Start Screen, represent different programs that you can access by either tapping or clicking on them. The Windows Metro Start screen contains its default tiles, however users have the ability to add or remove  tiles (application shortcuts) to meet their requirements. Adding tiles to the Metro Start screen is called pinning while removing them from the Metro Start screenis called unpinning.

Pinning Apps and Programs to the Windows 8 Metro Start Screen

To pin a Windows application or a Metro App to the Start screen, you have to find it first. For this, tap/click on the Search icon and type the name of the application or the program that you wish to add.

For example, type “Paint” to search for the Windows Paint application as shown below. Once found tap/click on the Apps option:

windows-8-add-remove-application-from-start-screen-01
Figure 1. Searching for Application

 

Search will come up with the search result for the Paint program, as indicated on the left of the screen. Right-click on the search result or hold your finger on it until a check mark appears besides it and a panel opens up at the bottom of the screen:

windows-8-add-remove-application-from-start-screen-02
Figure 2. Pinning the Application on Windows 8

The Panel offers two options for pinning – Pin to taskbar and Pin to Start. If you like to see the icon of the application on the taskbar on your Windows Desktop, you can tap/click on Pin to taskbar. We want to pin it to the Metro Start screen so Tap/click on the icon Pin to Start, for this article.

The bottom panel now disappears and you can open the application from the icon on the screen. Instead if you would like to go back to the Start screen, click on the bottom left hand corner or swipe in from the right edge of the screen. Now, tap/click on the Start icon. Verify that the application icon has appeared on the Metro Start screen:

How to Detect Routing Loops and Physical Loops with a Network Analyzer

Posted in Network Fundamentals

How to Detect Routing Loops and Physical Loops with a Network Analyzer - 5.0 out of 5 based on 8 votes

how-to-detect-routing-and-physical-loops-using-a-network-analyzer-01aWhen working with medium to large scale networks, IT departments are often faced dealing with network loops and broadcast storms that are caused by user error, faulty network devices or incorrect configuration of network equipment.  Network loops and broadcast storms are capable of causing major network disruptions and therefore must be dealt with very quickly.

There are two kinds of network loops and these are routing loops and physical loops.

Routing loops are caused by the incorrect configuration of routing protocols where data packets sent between hosts of different networks, are caught in an endless loop travelling between network routers with incorrect route entries.

A Physical loop is caused by a loop link between devices. A common example is two switches with two active Ethernet links between them. Broadcast packets exiting the links on one switch are replicated and sent back from the other switch. This is also known as a broadcast storm.

Both type of loops are capable of causing major network outages, waste of valuable bandwidth and can disrupt network communications.

We will show you how to detect routing loop and physical loop with a network analyzer such as Colasoft Capsa or Wireshark.

Download your copy of Colasoft Capsa - a professional network analyzer designed to help locate and deal with network and protocol problems.

We’ve selected Colasoft Capsa 8.0 as our preferred packet analyzer because of its new feature that allows the quick diagnosis of routing loops and physical loops.

Note: To capture packets on a port that's connected to a Cisco Catalyst switch, users can also read our Configuring SPAN On Cisco Catalyst Switches - Monitor & Capture Network Traffic/Packets

If there are routing loops or physical loops in the network, Capsa will immediately report them in the Diagnosis tab as shown below. This makes troubleshooting easier for network managers and administrators:

how-to-detect-routing-and-physical-loops-using-a-network-analyzer-01 
Figure 1. Capsa quickly detects and displays Routings and Physical Loops

Further examination of Capsa’s findings is possible by simply clicking on each detected problem. This allows us to further check the characteristics of the related packets and then decide what action must be taken to rectify the problem.

Drilling into our Captured Information

Let’s take a routing loop for example. First, find out the related conversation using Filter (red arrow) in the MAC Conversation tab. MAC addresses can be obtained easily from the notices given in the Diagnosis tab:

Demystifying Cisco AnyConnect 4.x Licensing. Plus, Plus Perpetual, Apex & Migration Licenses for Cisco IOS Routers & ASA Firewalls (5500/5500-X Series). Supported Operating Systems & Ordering Guide

Posted in Cisco Firewalls - ASA & PIX Firewall Configuration

Demystifying Cisco AnyConnect 4.x Licensing. Plus, Plus Perpetual, Apex & Migration Licenses for Cisco IOS Routers & ASA Firewalls (5500/5500-X Series). Supported Operating Systems & Ordering Guide - 4.3 out of 5 based on 3 votes

cisco-anyconnect-license-plus-perpetual-apex-essential-premium-ssl-mobility-vpn-01aIn late 2014, Cisco announced the new licensing model for the latest AnyConnect Secure Mobility client v4.x. With this new version, Cisco introduced a number of new features, but also simplified the licensing model which was somewhat confusing. In this article, we will take a look at the new AnyConnect 4.x licenses which consist of: AnyConnect Plus license, AnyConnect Plus Perpetual license and AnyConnect Apex license.
 
We will also show how the new licenses map to the older AnyConnect Essentials and AnyConnect Premium license, plus the available migration paths. Finally, we also take a look at Cisco’s Software Application Support (SAS) and Software Application Support plus Upgrade (SASU), which are required when purchasing AnyConnect.

All AnyConnect licenses prior to version 4 had the AnyConnect Essentials and Premium licensing scheme. The newer v4.x AnyConnect licenses now have one of the three licensing options:

  • Cisco AnyConnect Plus License (Subscription Based)
  • Cisco AnyConnect Plus Perpetual License (Permanent – no subscription)
  • Cisco AnyConnect Apex License (Subscription Based)

With the new AnyConnect licenses, Cisco has moved to a subscription-based licensing model which means customers will unfortunately need to fork out more money in the long run.  The Plus Perpetual License on the other hand allows Cisco customers to purchase a one-time license, however the license costs significantly higher than the subscription-based license.

We should also note that AnyConnect 4.0 is not licensed based on simultaneous connections (like the previous AnyConnect 3.x), but is now user-based. This means a user connecting via his smartphone and laptop simultaneously will only occupy a single license.

Since the newer AnyConnect licenses are subscription-based, according to Cisco, if their subscription expires and is not renewed, they will stop working.
 
Cisco AnyConnect Secure Mobility Client 4.0 supports the following operating systems:

  • Windows 8.1 (32bit & 64Bit)
  • Windows 8 (32bit & 64Bit)
  • Windows 7 (32bit & 64Bit)
  • Linux Ubuntu 12.X 64Bit
  • Linux RedHat 6 64Bit
  • Mac OS X 10.10 – 10.8

As expected, Windows XP is no longer supported.

Let’s take a look at each license feature and how the older AnyConnect Essentials and Premium licenses map to the newer AnyConnect Plus and Apex licenses:

cisco-anyconnect-license-plus-perpetual-apex-essential-premium-ssl-mobility-vpn-01

Figure 1. Mapping AnyConnect 3.x Essentials & Premium to AnyConnect 4.x Plus & Apex

 

Related AnyConnect Articles on Firewall.cx:

 

Cisco AnyConnect Plus License (Equivalent to the old Essentials License) 5, 3 or 1-Year Term

The AnyConnect Plus License is a subscription-based license with the option of a 5, 3 or 1-year renewable subscription and supports the following features:

  • VPN Support for Devices. Includes Workstations and Laptops.
  • Secure Mobility Client support (AnyConnect Mobile). Includes mobile phones, tablets etc.
  • SSL VPN (Client-based)
  • Per-app VPN. Authorize specific applications access the VPN.  Supports specific devices and software.
  • Basic endpoint context collection
  • IEEE 802.1X Windows supplicant
  • Cisco Cloud Web Security agent for Windows & Mac OS X platforms
  • Cloud Web Security and Web Security Appliance support
  • Cisco Advanced Malware Protection for Endpoints Enabler. AMP for Endpoints is licensed separately
  • Network Access Manager
  • Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) Compliance

It is worth noting that AnyConnect 3.x required the purchase of Essentials or Premium license + AnyConnect Mobile (L-ASA-AC-M-55xx) in order to support mobile devices (Smartphones, Tablets etc.).  AnyConnect Mobile is now integrated into the new AnyConnect Plus license.

 

Cisco AnyConnect Plus Perpetual (permanent) License

CCENT/CCNA

Cisco Routers

  • SSL WebVPN
  • Securing Routers
  • Policy Based Routing
  • Router on-a-Stick

VPN Security

  • Understand DMVPN
  • GRE/IPSec Configuration
  • Site-to-Site IPSec VPN
  • IPSec Modes

Cisco Help

  • VPN Client Windows 8
  • VPN Client Windows 7
  • CCP Display Problem
  • Cisco Support App.

Windows 2012

  • New Features
  • Licensing
  • Hyper-V / VDI
  • Install Hyper-V

Linux

  • File Permissions
  • Webmin
  • Groups - Users
  • Samba Setup