Hyper-V ConceptsIt's time to get familiar with Hyper-V Virtualization, virtual servers, virtual switches, virtual CPUs, virtual deployment infrastructure (VDI) and more.
This article explains what a web browser cookie is and examines how Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF) attacks work by allowing hackers to intercept and access web browser cookies from unaware users trying to logon to a website to continue their online shopping or access personal online files e.g Dropbox etc. We also explain how we can avoid Cross Site Request Forgery attacks and best security practices to keep our web applications and users safer.
When visiting a website, a cookie (small file) from the website is usually stored on your computer containing information such as login details, items you had in your shopping basket etc. Each cookie is unique to your web browser and website visited, so that the website can retrieve or read the contents of its cookie when revisiting it. What most people are unaware of is that any malicious attacker with access to your computer can use the cookies stored therein to exploit access to websites you have visited earlier.
A malicious attacker may take advantage of this situation by latching on to the authentication cookie the user is sending to the website for initiating an action and then using the credentials to impersonate the user. The attacker uses Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF) for initiating the attack.
More Web Application Security & Web Attack related articles can be found in our Netsparker Web Security section.
The Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) Top 10 lists Cross Site Request Forgery which is an attack whereby an attacker uses his or her website to send malicious code to a vulnerable web application in which a user is already authenticated.
Figure 1. Illustration of how CSRF attacks work
Our previous article shows how to perform a password recovery on the Cisco Catalyst switches. This article will now explain how to disable or enable the Cisco password recovery service allowing network engineers and administrators to further secure their Cisco equipment.
The password recovery mechanism is enabled by default which means anyone with physical access to the switch is able to initiate the process and gain access to the switch or stack’s configuration. In some environments this might be a major security concern which is why Cisco provides the option to disable the password recovery mechanism.
In cases where the mechanism is disabled the only option available to gain access to the switch is to delete its startup configuration.
Disabling the password recovery mechanism is achieved by using the no service password-recovery command in global configuration mode as shown below:
Windows 10 latest update 1607 code named Anniversary update promises to introduce a number of significant enhancements including breaking your trustworthy Cisco IPSec VPN client. After installing the Anniversary update users will receive a familiar message from the Compatibility Assistant:
Figure 1. This app can’t run on this PC. Cisco VPN Client doesn’t work on this version of Windows
The good news is that what you’re reading is not true – While Windows 10 does in fact disable the application, getting it to work again is a very easy process and very similar to installing the client on the Windows 10 operating system.
The following steps will help rectify the problem and have your Cisco IPSec VPN client working in less than 5 minutes.
Windows 7 32bit & 64bit users can read our Cisco VPN Client Fix for Windows 7 Operating System.
Windows 8 32bit & 64bit users can read our Cisco VPN Client Fix for Windows 8 Operating System.
Windows 10 Anniversary users without the Cisco VPN Client should read our article How to Install and Fix Cisco VPN Client on Windows 10.
Head to the Firewall.cx Cisco Tools & Applications download section to download and extract the Cisco IPSec VPN Client installation files on your computer. The Cisco VPN installation files will be required for the repair process that follows.
Note: The Cisco IPSec VPN Client is offered in a 32Bit and 64Bit version. Ensure you download the correct version for your operating system.
After the file extraction process is complete, go to the Windows Control Panel and select Programs and Features. Locate the Cisco Systems VPN Client, select it and click on Repair:
Figure 2. Initiating the Repair of the Cisco IPSec VPN Client
The repair process will ask for the location of the Cisco VPN installation files – simply point it to where the files were extracted previously e.g c:\temp\vpnclient.
At this point the Windows 10 User Account Control will prompt for confirmation to allow the Cisco VPN application to make changes to your device. Click Yes to continue:
This article shows how to reset a password on a Cisco Catalyst 3750-X (stacked or single unit) and Cisco Catalyst 3560-x switch without losing its startup configuration. The Cisco password recovery procedure involves interrupting the switch’s normal boot procedure, renaming the flash:config.text (that’s the startup-config file for switches) to something else e.g flash:config.text.old so that the configuration file is skipped during bootup.
Once the switch has loaded its operating system we can enter privileged-exec mode, rename back the flash:config.text.old to flash:config.text (startup-config), copy the startup-config file to memory (DRAM), make the necessary password changes and save the configuration.
The procedure described below assumes the password recovery mechanism is enabled (by default, it is) and there is physical access to the switch or stack (3750-X only).
Note: If this procedure is being performed on a 3750-X stack, it is important to understand that all switches participating in the stack should be powered off and only the Master switch is powered on when initiating the password recovery procedure. The Master switch can be easily identified by searching for the switch with the green “Master” LED on.
On a 3750-X switch, Power off the entire stack or standalone switch. On a Catalyst 3560-X switch, power off the switch. Connect your console cable to the switch – 3750-X Master or the standalone switch.
Reconnect the power to the switch (standalone 3750-X or 3750-X) or stack master (3750-X stack only). Within 10 seconds, press and hold the Mode button while the System LED is flashing green. After the System LED turns amber and then solid green, release the Mode button.
Now initialize the flash file system, rename the startup configuration file (config.text) and boot the IOS:
According to Wikipedia, security is defined as the degree of resistance to, or protection from, harm. It applies to any vulnerable and valuable asset which in almost all cases, will include an organizations’ website, web service and IT infrastructure.
At the same time, it is important to realize that security is a very broad term. Many people mistakenly associate network security with web application security. While there are some similarities, there are also many distinct differences that necessitate a unique approach to each. The assumption that a secure network results in a secure web application and vice versa is a critical mistake.
In this article, we are going to look at what makes web application security different from network security and why an approach that addresses both is the only way forward when it comes to maintaining an effective overall IT security posture.
Network security can be either hardware based (routers with a built-in firewalls, network intrusion and detection systems) or software based. Because network security has been around for a very long time, it’s often the first thing that comes to mind when people think about security. Web application security on the other hand, is a relatively new challenge.
Much like a moat, curtain wall and portcullis protect a castle, network security plays the important but restrictive and limited role of keeping the bad guys (hackers) out and allowing the “good guys” to enter. In the DMZ environment there’s an overall focus on protecting the perimeter that surrounds the website, web application or web service with the help of a Firewall security appliance. Although this works well in some instances, Firewall security appliances are no longer considered an adequate solution because they are unable to protect organizations from their own vulnerable web services or web application servers.