The device driver software receives a frame of IP, IPX, NetBIOS, or other higher-layer protocol data. From this data, the device driver constructs a frame, with appropriate Ethernet header information and a frame check sequence at the end.
The circuitry on the adapter card then takes the frame and converts it into an electrical signal. The voltage transitions in the transmitted bit stream are in accordance to the format called Manchester Signal Encoding. Manchester encoding describes how a binary ONE and ZERO are to be represented electrically. Manchester encoding is used in all 10 Megabit per second Ethernets; for example, 10BASE2 Thin Ethernet, 10BASE5 Thick Ethernet and 10BASE-T Twisted-Pair Ethernet.