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Cisco Router 'User Exec' Mode

Posted in Cisco Routers - Configuring Cisco Routers


Let's see what it looks like to be in User-Exec mode on a Cisco router. Below, we have telneted into our lab router and are in User Exec Mode:


The easiest way to keep track of the mode you're in is by looking at the prompt. The ">" means we are in User Exec Mode. From this mode, we are able to get information like the version of IOS, contents of the Flash memory and a few others.

Cisco Router Modes

Posted in Cisco Routers - Configuring Cisco Routers


One of the greatest perhaps features of Cisco routers is that most commands used in the IOS software they run on, are identical across multiple platforms. For example, commands for configuring a gigabit ethernet interface on a Cisco 2821 are exactly the same when configuring a gigabit ethernet interface on a Cisco 3945. This feature makes working with pretty much any Cisco model, a extremely comfortable and pleasant experience.

While examples provided in this article are identical to pretty much any IOS version, we are taking version 12.4.x as the basic version. Our examples in the pages that follow (covering Cisco router modes) make use of a Cisco router with an ISDN interface. The ISDN Interface is configured to make a dialup connection to an ISP.

Because this article serves as an introduction, we decided to keep things as simple as possible, while our more advanced articles cover a lot more complex configurations and scenarios that will satisfy all advanced engineers.

Now, when you power up a Cisco router, it will first run a POST test to ensure all hardware is ok, and then look into the Flash to load the IOS. Once the IOS is loaded, it will then check the NVRAM for any configuration file. Since this is a new router, it won't find any, so the router will go into "setup mode".

Cisco Router Basics

Posted in Cisco Routers - Configuring Cisco Routers

Cisco is well known for its routers and switches. I must admit they are very good quality products and once they are up and running, you can pretty much forget about them because they rarely fail.

We are going to focus on routers here since that's the reason you clicked on this page !

Cisco has a number of different routers, amongst them are the popular 880 series, 2900 series and 3900 series.

Below are a pictures few of the routers mentioned (880 & 2900 series):

All the above equipment runs special software called the Cisco Internetwork Operating System or IOS. This is the kernel of Cisco routers and most switches. Cisco has created what they call Cisco Fusion, which is supposed to make all Cisco devices run the same operating system.

We are going to begin with the basic components which make up a Cisco router (and switches) and I will be explaining what they are used for, so grab that tea or coffee and let's get going !

The basic components of any Cisco router are :

  • Interfaces
  • The Processor (CPU)
  • Internetwork Operating System (IOS)
  • RXBoot Image
  • RAM
  • ROM
  • Flash memory
  • Configuration Register

Introduction To Routers

Posted in Cisco Routers - Configuring Cisco Routers


Welcome to the Routers section. Here we will analyse routers quite some depth; what they do and how they work. We must point out that knowlege on the OSI model is recommended, plus understanding of how data is sent across the network medium. If you find the information a bit too confusing or don't quite understand it, we suggest you go back to the networking section and do some reading on the OSI model and Protocols.


What are they and what do they do?

Routers are very common today in every network area, this is mainly because every network these days connect to some other network, whether it's the Internet or some other remote site. Routers get their name from what they do.... which is route data from one network to another.

For example, if you had a company which had an office in Sydney and another one in Melbourne, then to connect the two you would use a leased line to which you would connect a router at each end. Any traffic which needs to travel from one site to another will be routed via the routers, while all the other unecessary traffic is filtered (blocked), thus saving you valuable bandwidth and money.

There are two type of routers: 1) Hardware routers 2) Software routers.

So what's the difference ?

When people talk about routers, they usually don't use the terms "hardware" or "software" router but we are, for the purpose of distinguishing between the two.

Hardware routers are dedicated hardware that run special software created by their vendors to give them the routing capabilities, plus a whole lot more functions. Hardware routers a most common amongst companies as they are faster and more reliable. In the earlier days, hardware routers would start from a couple of hundred dollars, however their prices today are extremely low for cheaper-brand models.

The picture below shows a new-generation cisco 2900 series router that offers a lot more than simple routing capabilities:


Windows 2003 DNS Server Installation & Configuration

Posted in Windows 2003 Server

For both private and public networks (i.e.: the Internet), DNS is used for translating host names to IP addresses and the reverse. DNS does this by using records stored in its database. On the Internet DNS mainly stores records for public domain names and servers whereas in private networks it may store records for client computers, network servers and data pertaining to Active Directory.

In this article, we will install and configure DNS on a standalone Windows Server 2003. We will begin by setting up a cache-only DNS server and progress to creating a primary forward lookup zone, a reverse lookup zone, and finally some resource records. At the end of this article we will have set up a DNS server capable of resolving internal and external host names to IP addresses and the reverse.

Install DNS on Windows Server 2003

Before installing and configuring DNS on our server we have to perform some preliminary tasks. Specifically, we have to configure the server with a static IP address and a DNS suffix. The suffix will be used to fully-qualify the server name. To begin:

1. Go to Start > Control Panel > Network Connections , right-click Local Area Connection and choose Properties .

2. When the Local Area Connection Properties window comes up, select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and click Properties . When the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) window comes up, enter an IP address , subnet mask and default gateway IP addresses that are all compatible with your LAN.

Our LAN is on a network, so our settings are as follows:




3. For the Preferred DNS Server , enter the loopback address . This tells the server to use its own DNS server service for name resolution, rather than using a separate server. After filling out those fields , click the Advanced button.

4. When the Advanced TCP/IP Settings window comes up, click the DNS tab, enter firewall.test on the DNS suffix for this connection text field, check Register this connection's address in DNS , check Use this connection's DNS suffix in DNS registration , and click OK , OK , and then Close:


Cisco Routers

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