Vlans are layer 2 constructs. everything on each VLAN is going to be in one subnet. Are you looking to break down the communication at a layer 2 level? You really can't (as far as I know) everything on the vlan acts as if its on the same physical lan.
In basic terms a firewall is just a router that applies rules to decide whether it should forward something or not. By definition you can't really deploy an IP firewall unless the two networks at its input and output are different IP networks. I'm not sure therefore how you envisage this working or fully grasp what you mean when you say you want to apply firewalling between VLANs but you don't want to route. I think what you are saying is that you want to selectively route (or deny) based on some sort of set of rules. If so, you can do so using ACLs but it will be messy and might not allow fine enough control for your needs. But you'll have to have each VLAN configured as a different IP network to do so
Just get a switch that you can create VLANS on, create your vlans, assign ports to your vlans. Get a router with at least two ports, put each port of the router in each vlan. Create your acls on the router.
This will make it easy for you. No trunking at all.