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Guide to Windows Server 2016 Hyper-V Hypervisor: New Virtualization Features, Limitations, Backup, Checkpoints, Storage, Networking and more

Posted in Windows Server 2016

Guide to Hyper-V Windows server 2016One of Windows Server 2016 highlights is the newer Hyper-V server that not only extends the hypervisor’s features and capabilities but also introduces a number of new enhancements and concepts that take virtualization to a new level.

There’s a lot of new exciting features we are covering so without any further delay, let’s take a look at what we have in hand for you:

Users new to Hyper-V can also read our Introduction to Hyper-V Concepts article

Hyper-V Hypervisor Technology Overview

Hyper-V was first released in 2008 as a re-brand of Microsoft’s Virtual PC. It lets users create a virtual machine (VM), a complete, software version of a computer. Users don’t have to install an OS through the normal route, and instead run a program on top of their current one.

This is made possible by a hypervisor – a layer between the physical and virtual environments that can manage the system’s hardware between VMs. It isolates the host machine from its underlying hardware.

This opens some natural benefits. Firstly, a virtual machine is in a separate environment to the host computer. As a result, any problems that occur do not affect the regular operating system. This makes virtual machines ideal testing environments.

This is furthered by the ability to run multiple operating systems at once. Most modern computers have more hardware than needed for day to day tasks, and users can run, for example, a Windows, Windows Server, and Linux operating system simultaneously. Instead of requiring three different servers, only one is required. This cuts down on hardware, power, maintenance, and cooling costs.

It also allows for more flexible deployment. At a hefty fee, admins can purchase a Windows Datacenter license and create infinite virtual machines without having to pay any extra. In testing or production environments, this cuts out vital slowdown while employees check licenses. With virtualization, new servers can be deployed in minutes.

Another flexibility is hardware resources. Users can configure Hyper-V to utilize different amounts of resources, including the processor, storage, and memory. This is particularly useful if an organization uses a Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI). A Windows operating system is hosted on a central server, and users are given virtual desktops over the network. Not only does this save on licensing costs, it means admins can scale the amount of resources users have depending on various factors.

Hyper-V also lets admins make easy backups. It’s simple to copy a VM and restore it later if anything goes wrong. With Hyper-V, there are two options – saved states, and Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS). VSS lets admins make backups even when files are in use, meaning the process can be completed on demand.

This ease of movement can be useful in other scenarios. Built-in features like live and storage migration make virtual machines much more portable. Users can access the exact same environment on a different machine, without the need for complex procedures. That combines with security features like Secure Boot to protect the host OS from viruses, malware, and attacks.

Hyper-V Backup

Hyper-V in Windows Server 2016

One of the most popular hosts for a virtual machine is Microsoft’s Windows Server OS. For the past few years, admins have been running Windows Server 2012 R2, a Windows 8.1-based platform. However, the release of Windows 10 has prompted a Windows Server 2016 variant, and it comes with plenty of new functionality.

A big example is the introduction of Microsoft’s Nano Server. A purpose-built OS, Nano Server is a lightweight version of Windows Server Core that’s designed to run born-in-the-cloud applications and containers. It’s complementary to Windows Server 2016, has no GUI, and is optimized for Hyper-V. The service provides an environment with a low overhead and fewer avenues of attack.

Windows Server 2016 also introduces nested virtualization. Essentially, this lets you run a VM inside another VM. Though it’s a strange concept, the usage scenarios are more common than you may think. Many companies now use the virtual infrastructure we mentioned earlier, and this means those systems can still use Hyper-V. It also makes for a good test environment, letting trainees try out different Oss and situations without the need for separate hardware.

Other big improvements come to the Hyper-V manager. An updated WS-MAN management protocol lets admins do a live migration without having to enable extra settings in Azure Active Directory. This also enables CredSSP, Kerbos or NTLM authentication, and makes it easy to enable a host for remote management.

This is furthered by support for alternate credentials when connecting to another Windows 10 or 2016 remote host. This includes a save functionality so that you don’t have to type it every time. Though earlier versions don’t support this functionality, you can still use the Hyper-V manager in Windows Server 2016 to control earlier versions. The new manager supports Windows Server 2012, 2012 R2, Windows 8, and 8.1.

The next major change is PowerShell Direct. The process runs between the host and virtual machine, meaning there’s less need to configure firewalls and networks. It lets users remotely run cmdlets in multiple VMs without complex setup. PowerShell functionality extends to NanoServers, where it can run directly.

Hyper-V Containers

Complete Guide to SOCKS Proxy - How to Securely Bypass Blocks, Safe Torrenting, Free Proxy List, Anonymous Proxies, Access Restricted Content

Posted in VPN Guides & Articles

Socks ProxyThe internet is in a strange place right now. It’s no longer the open, free place it used to be. Increasingly, users are being subject to website blocks, attacks, and surveillance. For true safety or anonymity, precautions must be taken. Thankfully, there many ways for you to protect yourself, one of them being Socket Secure (SOCKS) proxies.

While many have heard about SOCKS Proxies not many truly understand their purpose, how they work and the security-privacy levels they can offer. SOCKS proxies are often mistakenly considered an alternative or equivalent to VPNs causing major confusion amongst users and providing false sense of security.

In this article we'll be covering a wealth of topics relating to SOCKS Proxies, SSL, Configuration advise, Torrenting via SOCK, compare them with VPNs and much more so let's take a quick look at what we have in store before diving deeper:

Introduction to SOCKS Proxies

Like HTTP, SOCKS is an internet protocol, but it offers a further degree of anonymity. Connecting to a SOCKS proxy routes your traffic through a third-party server via TCP, assigning you a new IP address in the process. Because the IP address is different, web hosts can’t determine the physical location.

This has the add-on effect of bypassing regional filtering. However, unlike a VPN, SOCKS doesn’t provide encryption. This means users don’t have true privacy and aren’t safe from attacks on Public WiFi and government surveillance. In addition, SOCKS doesn’t run through every application, meaning regular browsing is not always safe.

However, this lack of encryption does provide some benefits. The main one is speed. A SOCKS proxy doesn’t need resources to encrypt traffic and has far less overhead, so it’s usually faster than a VPN. Though proxies don’t provide protection from monitoring, they are a nice middle ground between HTTP and VPNs.

The security of a SOCKS proxy also depends on the version it utilizes. Most modern proxies use either SOCKS4 or SOCKS5 to protect users, and there are some fundamental differences. As you would expect from a lesser version, SOCKS4 has fewer features.

One example is the lack of support for UDP protocol-based applications. This cuts out programs that need faster, more efficient transfers, like games. SOCKS5 also supports IPv6 and Domain Name Resolution. This means the client can specify a URL rather than an IP address. This feature is also supported by SOCKS4a.

As well as SOCKS, users can utilize the HTTP/HTTPS proxy method. HTTP proxies work similarly to SOCKS5, but utilize the HTTP protocol instead. This is the same method that transfers data to your computer when you type http://www.firewall.cx. These proxies fetch and receive primarily in HTTP and are generally used for web browsers. Some applications support HTTP proxy, others SOCKS proxy, and many both. HTTP is more intelligent than SOCKS5, but also less secure.

Due to lack of UDP support and limited TCP support, HTTP proxies don’t fully support torrenting. Often, they will filter out this type of data or block it. This blocking is especially prevalent in public HTTP proxies. In addition, HTTP tries to re-write the headers of the data in transit. The result is extremely slow or non-existent torrenting.

Understanding How HTTPS Encryption - SSL & HTTPS Proxies Work

HTTPS proxies utilize something called the Secure Socket Layer. In your browser, you’ll notice this as a green padlock next to the URL bar:

https enabled website - green lock

In short, SSL creates a secure connection between the web server and the user’s browser. When you request a URL, the server sends your browser a copy of its SSL certificate. The browser verifies that it’s authentic, and the server then sends back a signed acknowledgment. Upon arrival, both start an SSL encrypted session and can share data safely.

This encryption uses a method called public key cryptography. A server using SSL has both a public key and a private key. When a server first negotiates an SSL session with a client, it sends a copy of its public key. The client’s browser verifies the certificate and then uses the public key to create a symmetric key which is then sent to the server. The private key is never sent and always kept secret.

How HTTPS & SSL works

The symmetric key is unique to the SSL session and used to encrypt/decrypt data exchanged between the client and server.

HTTPS proxy works slightly differently. Using the CONNECT method, requests are converted to a transparent tunnel. However, this feature isn’t available in a lot of proxies and, when it is, users can still be vulnerable.

Some versions of SSL are still open to attack through the Heartbleed bug. This serious vulnerability was discovered in 2014 and allows attackers to steal private keys from servers, eavesdropping on communications and gaining access to passwords, emails and instant messages. Vulnerabilities in SSL and its predecessor TLS have been found several times since then, including man-in-the-middle attacks that downgrade the user to a less secure version.

How SOCKS5 Proxy Works

While an HTTP proxy is designed to work in the web browser, a SOCKS5 proxy is more wide-reaching. SOCKS sits on the higher levels of the OSI model, below SSL, which sits on the seventh application layer, and above TCP and UDP on the transport layer (Layer 4). This offers several advantages. TCP works by forming a physical connection between the client and the server, trying to guarantee that every packet arrives at the destination in the same order it was sent. To do this, it puts all the content into a fixed format.

Another use of UDP is in the Domain Name System (DNS), which allows for translation of URLs into IP addresses. The combination of both TCP and UDP creates a more flexible and reliable experience.

Anonymous Browsing – Internet Privacy. Securing Your Online Privacy The Right Way

Posted in VPN Guides & Articles

anonymous browsing secure your online identityDespite what some think, the internet is not private. Anonymous browsing and Internet Privacy are almost non-existent in today's online world. Websites collect personal information on every visit without your knowledge. Despite the free label, services come at a cost, and in many cases, it’s a lack of privacy.

The primary driver is the advertising industry. Most websites get paid if an ad is clicked or the product is purchased, not just for exposure. As a result, they want promotions that are relevant to the user. They get paid, and the user gets to see the products they’re interested in. It seems advantageous to both parties.

However, to target these ads, agencies need information about a website’s users. Companies like Facebook embed trackers across the web to build a detailed profile of individuals. This includes things like your gender, age, location, and websites you frequent. Information from multiple ad agencies can then be combined to build a detailed picture of your interests and personality.

firefox lightbeam plugin

Firefox's Lightbeam Plugin provides a visual map of sites visited during our session

Here’s the result of two hours of browsing activity with the Lightbeam plugin. The circle articles are sites we visited, while the triangles are third parties. Together, they can create an interconnected web of information. Visiting just 32 sites fed 371 third parties data.

They can do this across the web through identifying information like your IP address. When you connect to a network, your device is given a unique string of numbers by the ISP or mobile service provider. These can be cross-referenced across the internet to find your browsing habits.

If that’s not enough, there are also government agencies to worry about. IP addresses usually give websites a rough idea of your location by pointing to your service provider. That’s not a barrier for government. They can ask the ISP who the IP was assigned to and find your name and address. You would think that such power would be used sparingly, but unfortunately, it’s not.

Former NSA contractor Edward Snowden revealed that major powers are spying on citizens across the world on an unprecedented level. Authorities request all that tracking data we mentioned earlier and combine it with information from the internet service provider (ISP). From 2011-2012, Australian agencies requested ISP logs over 300,000 times. This can include every website the user has visited over a period of years.

And that’s someone who has the country’s best interests at heart. This kind of information is also accessible to a number of people who work for the ISP. Earlier this year, an ex-technician for Verizon pleaded guilty to selling phone call and location information to a private investigator. Web browsing information could equally be sold off to the highest bidder.

And that’s assuming they even have to buy it in the first place. In 2012, internet activist group anonymous hacked into the servers of telecommunications company AAPT. They stole over 40GB of information relating to business customers to show that the logs are not always safe. A redacted copy of the data was later published online.

What is the Threat?

With so many parties interested in such data, anonymous browsing is becoming difficult. The sad fact is that without protection from the Best VPN providers, you aren’t truly safe.

Firstly, there’s the threat of this information falling into the hands of hackers. Imagine a person with malicious intent having a record of your name, address, interests, habits, and every website you’ve been to. It could easily be used to blackmail someone or make threats to their friends and family.

It can also be used to identify potential weak points in your security. For example, if you regularly visit an insecure site, it could be hacked with an end goal of getting to you. Tools such as a key logger could then be used to collect usernames, passwords, and credit card data.

Furthermore, such access can be used for types of identity theft. Combined with an email account, an attacker has access to basically everything. Password resets for various accounts, name, age, date of birth. Bank details can be used to place illegal purchases on your behalf or commit fraud. Most of our lives are stored online, and the attack could gain access to all of it.

The same methods can be used by authorities in oppressive regimes. Even if the current government protects its citizens from such things, a power shift could change that. Because tracking information and ISP logs are kept for a long time, the data will still be around years into the future.

Then there’s the issue of illegal activities. Previously, nobody would know if you were breaking the law in the privacy of your own home. However, with the increase in logs, activities like torrenting can result in warnings, loss of service, or huge fines.

Without a VPN, torrents can be traced straight back to the user. Copyright holders hire companies to search through swarms of people torrenting their property. With an IP address, they can request a user’s details from the ISP and pursue legal action. The ISP is often compelled to do this or face legal repercussions themselves.

Though torrenting is a morally grey area, this can also affect customers who have done nothing wrong. WiFi networks can be hacked or information can be incorrect. In 2010, 53-year-old Cathi Paradiso ran into this problem when she was accused of downloading 18 films and TV shows illegally. In reality, her IP address was identified incorrectly, and her internet access cut off unjustly. It’s clear that even if you’re a regular internet user, anonymous browsing has its benefits.

What is Anonymous Browsing and How Does it Help?

Anonymous browsing is usually achieved by routing a normal internet connection through a virtual private network. We won’t go into too much detail here, as it’s been already covered in our Beginner’s Guide to VPNs.

What is a VPN? VPNs for Beginners - Everything You Need to Know About VPNs, Anonymous Browsing, Torrenting & VPN Security Features

Posted in VPN Guides & Articles

What is a VPN?

VPN Guide for beginners - What is a VPN?VPN (Virtual Private Network) is a well-known acronym amongst regular internet users. Initially used within businesses to securely connect to the corporate network, nowadays it’s being used by almost any type of user for anonymous browsing, protecting their privacy and stopping ISPs and government agencies tracking their online activities and transactions who are looking to capture users performing illegal file sharing of movies, music albums, torrenting or even trying to access geo-restricted content such as Netflix, Hulu and other streaming services.

With the exponential rise of internet security threats it doesn’t really matter what type of device you’re using - whether it’s a PC, MAC, tablet, iPhone, Android device or smartphone - the risk is the same. Every single one of these devices can be tracked and their precise location known without any effort.

For example, the screenshot below was taken from a mobile phone. It shows a website visited that is able to track the mobile device’s IP address ( and retrieve a significant amount of information regarding its location. It’s detected the country (Australia), the state (VIC), City (Melbourne), ISP/Mobile carrier (Optus) plus location and geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude)!

Information captured on a non-VPN protected internet user

Information captured from a non-VPN internet user

As you can appreciate, the amount of information websites can capture is alarming. In a similar way ISPs, hackers and government agencies can intercept and capture traffic to and from a user’s mobile device or PC at home.

Now that we appreciate how exposed we really are, let’s take a look at how VPNs help protect our identity and personal information.

Who Needs a VPN?

A VPN can offer a number of substantial advantages and, depending on your internet activities, can prove to be mandatory.

A VPN service will allow you to “hide” your physical location by masking the IP address assigned by your internet service provider (ISP). In addition, a VPN provides a basic level of security and confidentiality as all information to and from your computer or mobile device is encrypted. This prevents hackers or ISPs from monitoring your online activities.

Users typically require a VPN service for any of the following activities:

  • Hide your internet activities from your ISP and government. ISPs around the world unofficially monitor user traffic in order to intercept sensitive or top secret information. More than 41 countries are now members of the “Five Eyes” – a global intelligence alliance monitoring electronic information (email, faxes, web traffic etc) and private communication channels (VPNs). The National Security Agency (NSA) was uncovered spying on hundreds and thousands of VPN connections based on Cisco’s PIX Firewalls for over a decade thanks to a VPN exploit they discovered and was never shared with the public.
  • Accessing geo-restricted content. A prime explain is accessing US-based Netflix or Hulu when travelling overseas or accessing sites providing local online video/streaming, TV shows etc from anywhere around the world.
  • Bypassing web filters and accessing restricted websites or internet services such as online gaming, Skype, Dropbox, OneDrive etc. Recent bans by governments blocking popular Torrent sites such as ThePiratebay.org, TorrentHound, Torrentz, IsoHunt and others have pushed users to VPN services in order to access these sites and services without restriction.
  • Peer-to-Peer (P2P) file sharing. Usually blocked by firewalls or ISPs people are moving to VPN and ToR based networks in order to freely share data with each other without having to worry about being tracked or blocked.
  • Torrenting. A big topic indeed. While there are many torrents that are legally distributed e.g Linux ISO images, open-source applications and games, Torrent seeders and leechers are monitored by agencies acting on behalf of their clients MPAA (Motion Picture Association of America) & RIAA (Recording Industry Association of America) to protect their copyright materials. While these agencies monitor and stop illegal video/music downloading they have been found on many occasions to incorrectly accuse citizens of illegally downloading copyright content.
  • Avoid Bandwidth Throttling. ISPs are primarily responsible for this one. In order to save bandwidth they unofficially throttle torrent or other similar traffic, slowing download speeds considerably and sometimes to the point where users quit downloading. When it comes to VPN for Torrenting, P2P and File sharing users can avoid bandwidth throttling and in many cases increase their download speeds up to 3 times!
  • Accessing the internet from public WiFi hotspots. Using Public WiFi and Guest WiFi hotspots poses serious security threats. These are overcome with the usage of VPN services.

The TOR network is an alternative VPN solution used also by the Dark-Web. Readers interested on how TOR VPN works and compares against VPN can also check our TOR vs VPN article.

Accessing the Internet without a VPN

Below is a diagram showing a typical user accessing the internet without a VPN. The user’s IP address is assigned by the ISP and is visible to the internet. Any online resource accessed by the user is completely visible to the ISP and anyone monitoring the user’s IP address:

Unencrypted internet traffic is visible and easily monitored 

Unencrypted internet traffic is visible and easily monitored

Of course resources such as Internet Banking usually encrypt the data transferred between the client and the server but the traffic source (user IP) and destination (server IP) are still fully visible. Similarly other activities such as Torrent Downloads are fully traceable back to the user.

It should also be noted that ISPs always keep log files of their users’ IP addresses. This means that the ISP is fully aware of the IP address assigned to each of its users. By law, these logs are stored for years and can be used as evidence in the event of a law suit or investigation. This applies to home and mobile users.

Using a VPN Service Provider Changes the Game

To use a VPN service provider you must first register with a VPN Service Provider of your choice. VPN subscriptions start from a low $3US - $8US per month making them affordable for any user. Once you’ve purchased a VPN subscription you are able to download and install the provided VPN Client on to your devices.

The Ultimate Guide to IP PBX and VoIP Systems. The Best Free IP PBXs For Businesses

Posted in IP PBX - Unified Communications

3CX Unified CommunicationsVoIP/ IP PBXs and Unified Communication systems have become extremely popular the past decade and are the No.1 preference when upgrading an existing or installing a new phone system. IP PBXs are based on the IP protocol allowing them to use the existing network infrastructure and deliver enhanced communication services that help organizations collaborate and communicate from anywhere in the world with minimum or no costs.

This article explains the fundamentals of IP PBX systems, how IP PBXs work, what are their critical VoIP components, explains how they can connect to the outside world and shows how companies can use their IP PBX – Unified Communications system to save costs. We also take a look at the best Free VoIP PBX systems and explain why they are suitable for any size small-to-medium organization.

VOIP PBX – The Evolution of Telephone Systems

Traditional, Private Branch Exchange (PBX) telephone systems have changed a lot since the spread of the internet. Slowly but surely, businesses are phasing out analogue systems and replacing them with IP PBX alternatives.

A traditional PBX system features an exchange box on the organization’s premises where analogue and digital phones connect alongside external PSTN/ISDN lines from the telecommunication company (telco). It gives the company full ownership, but is expensive to setup and most frequently requires a specialist technician to maintain, repair and make changes.

Analogue-Digital PBX with phones and two ISDN PRI lines 

A typical Analogue-Digital PBX with phones and two ISDN PRI lines

Upgrading to support additional internal extensions would usually translate to additional hardware cards being installed in the PBX system plus more telephone cabling to accommodate the new phones. When a company reached its PBX maximum capacity (either phones or PSTN/ISDN lines) it would need to move to a larger PBX, resulting in additional costs.

IP PBXs, also known as VoIP systems or Unified Communication solutions, began penetrating the global PBX market around 2005 as they offered everything a high-end PBX offered, integrated much better with desktop applications and software (e.g outlook, CRMS etc) and supported a number of important features PBXs were not able to deliver. IP PBX and Unified Communication systems such as 3CX are able to deliver features such as:

  • Integration with existing network infrastructure
  • Minimizing the cost of upgrades
  • Using existing equipment such as analogue phones, faxes etc.
  • Desktop/mobile softphones that replaced the need for physical phone devices
  • Delivering full phone services to remote offices without requiring separate PBX
  • Allowing mobile users to access their internal extension via VPN or other secure means
  • User-friendly Web-based management interface
  • Support for virtualized-environments that increased redundancy level and dramatically decreased backup/redundancy costs
  • Supported third party software and hardware devices via non-proprietary communication protocols such as Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
  • Using alternative Telecommunication providers via the internet for cheaper call rates

The features offered by IP PBXs made them an increasingly popular alternative for organizations that were seeking to reduce telecommunication cost while increasing productivity and moving away from the vendor-proprietary solutions.

Why Businesses are Moving to IP PBX solutions

According to surveys made back in 2013, 96% of Australian businesses were already using IP PBXs. Today it’s clear that the solution has huge advantages. IP PBX offers businesses increased flexibility, reduced running costs, and great features, without a premium. There are so many advantages that it’s difficult for organizations to justify traditional analogue/digital PBXs. Even market leaders in the PBX market such as Siemens, Panasonic, Alcatel and others had to adapt to the rapidly changing telecommunications market and produce hybrid models that supported IP PBX features and IP phones, but these were still limited when compared with a full IP PBX solution.

When an IP PBX is installed on-site it uses the existing LAN network, resulting in low latency and less room for interference. It’s also much easier to install than other PBX systems. Network engineers and Administrators can easily configure and manage an IP PBX system as most distributions come with a simple user interface. This means system and phone settings, call routing, call reporting, bandwidth usage and other settings can be seen and configured in a simple browser window. In some cases, employees can even configure their own preferences to suit their workflow.

Once installed, an IP PBX can run on the existing network, as opposed to a whole telephone infrastructure across business premises. That means less cable management and the ability to use existing Ethernet cables, resulting in smaller starting costs. This reduction in starter costs can be even more significant if the company has multiple branches in different places. Internet Leased Lines with unlimited usage plans mean voice calls can be transmitted over WAN IP at no extra cost.

In addition, firms can use Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) trunking to reduce phone bills for most calls. Communications are routed to the Telco using a SIP trunk via the IP PBX directly or a Voice Gateway. SIP is an IP-based protocol which means the Telco can either provide a dedicated leased line directly into the organization’s premises or the customer can connect to a Telco’s SIP server via the internet. Usually main Telco lines are provided via a dedicated IP-based circuit to ensure line stability and low latency.

With SIP trunks Telco providers usually offer heavily reduced prices over traditional methods such as PSTN or ISDN circuits. This is especially true for long-distance calls, where communication can be made for a fraction of a price when compared to older digital circuits.

Savings on calls via SIP trunk providers can be so significant that many companies with old Legacy PBXs have installed an IP PBX that acts as a Voice Gateway, which routes calls to a SIP provider as shown in the diagram below:

Connecting an Analogue-Digital PBX with a SIP Provider via a Voice Gateway 

Connecting an Analogue-Digital PBX with a SIP Provider via a Voice Gateway

In this example an IP PBX with Voice Gateway (VG) capabilities is installed at the organization. The Voice Gateway connects on one end with the Analogue - Digital PBX using an ISDN BRI interface providing up to 2 concurrent calls while at the other end it connects with a SIP provider via IP.

The SIP provider can be reached via the internet, usually using a dedicated internet connection, or even a leased line if the SIP provider has such capabilities. The Analogue - Digital PBX is then programmed to route all local and national calls via the current telco while all international calls are routed to the SIP provider via the Voice Gateway.

The organization is now able to take advantage of the low call costs offered by the SIP provider.

The digital nature of IP PBX makes it more mobile. Softphone applications support IP PBX and let users make calls over the internet from their smartphone or computer. This allows for huge portability while retaining the same extension number. Furthermore, this often comes at a flat rate, avoiding per-minute fees. Advanced Softphones support a number of great features such as call recording, caller ID choice, transfer, hold, voice mail integration, corporate directory, just to name a few.

A great example is 3CX’s Free Windows softphone, which is a great compact application under continuous development that delivers everything a mobile desktop user would need to communicate with the office and customers while on the road or working from home:


Cisco Routers

  • SSL WebVPN
  • Securing Routers
  • Policy Based Routing
  • Router on-a-Stick

VPN Security

  • Understand DMVPN
  • GRE/IPSec Configuration
  • Site-to-Site IPSec VPN
  • IPSec Modes

Cisco Help

  • VPN Client Windows 8
  • VPN Client Windows 7
  • CCP Display Problem
  • Cisco Support App.

Windows 2012

  • New Features
  • Licensing
  • Hyper-V / VDI
  • Install Hyper-V


  • File Permissions
  • Webmin
  • Groups - Users
  • Samba Setup