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Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) - CAT 1 to CAT5, 5e, CAT6 & CAT7

Posted in Network Cabling

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) - CAT 1 to CAT5, 5e, CAT6 & CAT7 - 4.1 out of 5 based on 84 votes

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cable is most certainly by far the most popular cable around the world. UTP cable is used not only for networking but also for the traditional telephone (UTP-Cat 1). There are seven different types of UTP categories and, depending on what you want to achieve, you would need the appropriate type of cable. UTP-CAT5e is the most popular UTP cable which came to replace the old coaxial cable that was not able to keep up with the constant growing need for faster and more reliable networks.

Characteristics of UTP

The characteristics of UTP are very good and make it easy to work with, install, expand and troubleshoot and we are going to look at the different wiring schemes available for UTP, how to create a straight through UTP cable, rules for safe operation and a lot of other cool stuff !

So let's have a quick look at each of the UTP categories available today along with their specifications:

cabling-utp-categories

Figure 1. The Different UTP Categories and their specifications

Category 1/2/3/4/5/6/7 – a specification for the type of copper wire (most telephone and network wire is copper) and jacks. The number (1, 3, 5, etc) refers to the revision of the specification and in practical terms refers to the number of twists inside the wire (or the quality of connection in a jack).

Controlling Broadcasts and Multicasts

Posted in Network Fundamentals

Controlling Broadcasts and Multicasts - 4.3 out of 5 based on 13 votes

Introduction

The first step in controlling broadcast and multicast traffic is to identify which devices are involved in a broadcast or multicast storm. The following protocols can send broadcast or multicast packets:

  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
  • Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
  • IP Routing Information Protocol Version 1 (RIP1)
  • Service Advertising Protocol (SAP)
  • IPX Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
  • NetWare Link Services Protocol (NLSP)
  • AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol (AARP)

Network Broadcast

Posted in Network Fundamentals

Network Broadcast - 4.5 out of 5 based on 20 votes

Introduction

The term "Broadcast" is used very frequently in the networking world . You will see it in most networking books and articles, or see it happening on your hub/switch when all the LED's start flashing at the same time !

If you have been into networking for a while you most probably have come across the terms "broadcast" and "subnet broadcast" . When I first dived into the networking world, I was constantly confused between the two, because they both carried the "broadcast" term in them. We will analyse both of them here, to help you understand exactly what they are and how they are used !

Multicast IP Address List

Posted in Network Fundamentals

Multicast IP Address List - 4.5 out of 5 based on 8 votes

Introduction

This page contains all the Multicast IP Addresses and shows what protocol they are mapped to. Should you ever use a packet sniffer to try and see what's on the network and you capture a packet with a destination IP Address of 224.X.X.X, then simply look up this list and you will know what the purpose of that packet was :)

Multicast - Understand How IP Multicast Works

Posted in Network Fundamentals

Multicast - Understand How IP Multicast Works - 4.5 out of 5 based on 69 votes

To understand what we are going to talk about, you must be familiar with how MAC addresses are structured and how they work. The MAC Addresses page is available to help you learn more about them.


A multicast is similar to a broadcast in the sense that its target is a number of machines on a network, but not all. Where a broadcast is directed to all hosts on the network, a multicast is directed to a group of hosts. The hosts can choose whether they wish to participate in the multicast group (often done with the Internet Group Management Protocol), whereas in a broadcast, all hosts are part of the broadcast group whether they like it or not!

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