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Distance Vector Routing Protocols

Posted in Routing Protocols

Distance Vector routing protocols use frequent broadcasts (255.255.255.255 or FF:FF:FF:FF) of their entire routing table every 30 sec. on all their interfaces in order to communicate with their neighbours. The bigger the routing tables, the more broadcasts. This methodology limits significantly the size of network on which Distance Vector can be used.

Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) are two very popular Distance Vector routing protocols. You can find links to more information on these protocols at the bottom of the page. (That's if you haven't had enough by the time you get there !)

Distance Vector protocols view networks in terms of adjacent routers and hop counts, which also happens to be the metric used. The "hop" count (max of 15 for RIP, 16 is deemed unreachable and 255 for IGMP), will increase by one every time the packet transits through a router.

The IP Routing Process - Step-by-Step Analysis

Posted in Routing

We are going to analyse what happens when routing occurs on a network (IP routing process). When I was new to the networking area, I thought that all you needed was the IP Address of the machine you wanted to contact but so little did I know. You actually need a bit more information than just the IP Address !

The process we are going to explain is fairly simple and doesn't really change, no matter how big your network is.

The Example:

Routed Protocols

Posted in Routing

Introduction

We all understand that TCP/IP, IPX-SPX are protocols which are used in a Local Area Network (LAN) so computers can communicate between with each other and with other computers on the Internet.

Chances are that in your LAN you are most probably running TCP/IP. This protocol is what we call a "routed" protocol. The term "routed" refers to something which can be passed on from one place (network) to another. In the example of TCP/IP, this is when you construct a data packet and send it across to another computer on the Internet

Data Encapsulation & Decapsulation in the OSI Model

Posted in The OSI Model

Introduction

Here we are going to explain in detail how data travels through the OSI model. You must keep in mind that the OSI model is a guideline. It tells the computer what it's supposed to do when data needs to be sent or when data is received.

In order to make it easier for most, there is a movie file available which will show your exactly what we are about to analyse. Click here to to obtain the encap-decap movie (1MB). You will need Windows media player to view it.

 

Our Study Case

We are going to analyse an example in order to try and understand how data encapsulation and decapsulation works. This should make it easier for most people.

OSI Layer 7 - Application Layer

Posted in The OSI Model

The Application layer of the OSI model is where users communicate with the computer. The Application layer is responsible for identifying and establishing the availability of the intended communication partner and determining if sufficient resources for the intended communication exist. The user interfaces with the computer at the application layer.

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