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VPN Hotspot - How to Stay Safe on Public & Guest WiFi Networks

Posted in VPN Guides & Articles

Is Guest WiFi Safe?

Public and Guest Wifi security threatsIt’s hard to go to a pub, café, or hotel these days without running into public or guest WiFi. In many cases, an internet connection can feel like a necessity – keeping up with work or personal emails, arranging plans with friends, checking social media. Connecting is usually as easy as entering an email address, filling out a survey, or entering a code on a receipt.

It's an easy trap to fall into. Cellular data is expensive. In the US, 500 MB of pre-paid data costs an average of $85 US. If your contract doesn’t have a large data allowance, free WiFi is a godsend. However, that convenience comes with considerable risk to your privacy and security. If you’re not using a VPN at a public hotspot, you’re opening yourself up to all kind of malicious attacks and data interceptions such as sslstrip man-in-the-middle attack (analysed below), online activity monitoring, computer hijacking, restricted online browsing and many more serious security threats.

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Public - Guest WiFi Security Risks

The biggest misconception about open WiFi is that it offers the same protection as your home network. That couldn’t be further from the truth. The annoying password on your home network does much more than keep people from connecting. It encrypts your data so that those on the outside have trouble looking in.

By nature, guest WiFi has no password. In most cases, that means no encryption. With a simple tool, anyone on the network can see which websites you’re visiting. In some cases, they can even intercept the emails you send, the files on your computer, and passwords. It doesn’t matter if you’re at a high-security airport or the coffee shop down the road.

Even when an attacker isn’t around, you’re putting trust in the security of everyone else on the network. You may have the latest version of Windows 10, but the person next to you could have no security knowledge. Some forms of malware attempt to spread themselves to other people on the network, and the user probably doesn’t even know about it.

Common WiFi Attacks used at Internet Hotspots

vpn hotspot - SSL Connections are encrypted connectionsThankfully, wifi snooping is on the decrease thanks to SSL encryption. This web standard is spreading across all the most popular sites, and you’ll notice it by the HTTPS icon in your browser (as seen in the image on the left). It means that while someone can see the url you’re on, they can’t see your emails or the password you just typed in. Unfortunately, this won’t stop someone resourceful. In fact, SSL can be bypassed with a single method.

In 2009, security expert Moxie Marlinspike introduced sslstrip. By routing a victim’s connection through their own machine, an attacker can redirect them to the HTTP version of the page. The browser won’t even detect this and the victim has no idea what’s going on.

 how sslstrip wifi attack works

Representation of how an sslstrip wifi attack works

The vulnerability comes from the fact that most users don’t type in “https://” at the beginning of every url. This means that when they first connect to the site, it’s HTTP. Most websites will then redirect users to an HTTPS version, but ssltrip steps in and sends back HTTP instead. The hacker can then view all the user’s requests in plaintext, collecting whatever information he likes.

Though attackers often need specialist software and some technical knowledge, packages such as WiFi Pineapple can make so-called “man-in-the-middle” attacks relatively simple. In a few clicks, users can pretend to be a public network, routing traffic through them rather than to the router. From there, the attacker can force the user to visit websites with malware, install key loggers, and plenty of other shady things. It’s not too difficult, and with the aid of YouTube, a seven-year-old did it in eleven minutes.

In some cases, attackers don’t even need any experience to view your information. Oftentimes, users connecting to hotel WiFi forget to change Windows sharing settings. This makes it easy for anybody to view your shared files with no hacking required. Sometimes this isn’t even password protected, making it child’s play.

However, there are also tools to make more complex processes simple. In 2010, a simple browser extension called FireSheep was released. The tool lets users catch browsing cookies from any website that doesn’t use HTTPS. Though many major websites such as Facebook and Gmail are protected, smaller sites often use HTTP, and many users have the same password for multiple sites.

Firesheep Firefox extension in action 

Firesheep Firefox extension in action

Other tools let you do the same from an Android phone or other devices. And that’s assuming you’re connecting to the right network at all. A common method of attack is to set up a fake network, or honeypot. To the untrained eye, it won’t look out of place. Often, they will make sense in the context, named Starbucks WiFi, for example. In fact, an attacker owns it, and is logging everything you do. Our article configuring Windows 8 / 8.1 as an access point is a good example that shows just how easy it is to configure your workstation into a honeypot.

Hotel Hotspots - 277 Hotels Wordwide with Major Security Flaw

VPN For Torrenting, P2P and File Sharing. Test Anonymous Torrenting, Avoid Bandwidth Throttling, Protect Your Identity

Posted in VPN Guides & Articles

VPN for Torrenting GuideThe word torrenting is often viewed as synonymous with pirating. It’s seen as a shady and illegal practice, used to con hard working artists out of their money. As a result, internet service providers often blanket ban torrent websites or severely throttle downloads. If you aren’t using a VPN for torrenting, there’s a good chance you’re affected by this. However, ISPs over-arching policies can hurt users that use Peer-to-Peer (P2P) file sharing for innocent purposes.

How Torrenting & Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Works

Instead of using dedicated servers, P2P utilizes the connections of other users to distribute files. As they download a torrent, the individual also uploads a small portion for others to download. This creates an interconnected network where files are provided by many different people.

One huge example of legal P2P usage is gaming. Online games such as World of Warcraft, League of Legends, and downloads from UPlay all have a P2P option. This saves on server costs for the developers and can increase torrent speed. This can foster development for smaller, indie companies, who might not have the infrastructure for lots of servers.

Download Torrents Safely & Bypass any geo-location restrictions using ExpressVPN Client

In fact, Windows 10 even takes advantage of this method to save on bandwidth issues. The OS delivers updates in multiple parts, pulling bits from both PCs on the same network, over the internet, and Microsoft’s own data centers. This feature is turned on by default since the Windows 10 Anniversary Update in the summer of 2016.

However, more important is the role of torrenting in distributing public data. The Internet Archive caches huge amounts of websites and offers a huge variety of public domain books, TV shows, and audio recordings. The non-profit recommends the use of torrents to download its content, as it saves on bandwidth and allows it to continue its vital work.

This role extends even to government. NASA has used torrents several times in the past to distribute its findings, including this high-resolution picture of earth. The UK government has done similarly, releasing large datasets on public spending via BitTorrent.

As well as supporting government, BitTorrent is also used to oppose it. Transparency sites such as Julian Assange’s Wikileaks often release so-called ‘insurance files’ through torrents. Shortly before the leak of Hilary Clinton’s emails, the site published an 88GB, 256-AES encrypted file. This keeps the organization from being shut down – if WikiLeaks goes dark, an automated message sends out an unlock password for all the data. In previous cases, files have reached upwards of 400GB.

Despite the genuine uses of P2P, users still get attacked by copyright claimants, sometimes inaccurately. In 2015, the creators of B-movie Elf Man filed a lawsuit against hundreds of users who claimed to have never even heard of the movie. Ryan Lamberson was one of these defendants and was eventually reimbursed for $100,000 in legal fees. Closer examination of evidence revealed that the tools used by the copyright holder did not account for several shortcomings, and only tracked uploads rather than downloads.

The defense also pointed out that the primary evidence was little more than an IP address. This information came from a third-party software that connected to the BitTorrent swarm in which the files were shared. However, some torrent software allows for the spoofing of IP addresses, and the investigator failed to account for several other false positives. Because of the win, several other Elf Man cases were dropped or settled for a lower value.

Other thrown cases include the Adam Sandler movie The Cobbler, and a 53-year-old artist painter was wrongly accused of illegally downloading and sharing 18 films and TV shows. Thankfully, there is a simple way to avoid such risks.

Anonymous Torrenting with a VPN Service

Using a VPN for torrenting will ensure your identity remains private, not just from ISPs, but copyright claimants and government. When you connect to a VPN, all your traffic goes through a “tunnel”. The individual packets that make up your data contain information such as IP Address, protocol, and other identifying information.

Tunneling wraps those packets in others that provide extra security against prying eyes. In addition, the data is encrypted in transit, meaning ISPs, service providers and other middlemen see nothing but gibberish. Different providers use different encryption methods, the most common being IPSec, L2TP, and OpenVPN

The benefit of this tunneling is clear. An ISP or copyright holder can only see the IP address of the VPN servers, not your own. This makes for anonymous torrenting, and they can’t see what website’s you’ve visited either. Though this might not protect you against entirely baseless accusations, it should stop you from coming under genuine suspicion.

A VPN for torrenting will also provide you with protection in other ways. To stay safe on public WiFi, they are almost essential. Without one, attackers can snoop on your online traffic, possibly recovering passwords and credit card details. You could also be vulnerable to malware on your machine and tracking from third parties.

However, not all VPNs are created equal. Though some provide anonymous torrenting and public WiFi protection, others are questionable at best. Researching hundreds of different providers can be a pain, so instead we’ve done that for you. Our network security team has produced a VPN service review of all the Best VPN Service Providers, alongside detailed feature lists.

Finally, our Begineers Guide to VPNs article aims to educate users with all the necessary information so they can fully understand how a VPN works, security features offered by the best VPN service providers, what to look for in a VPN and what to stay away from.

Avoid ISP Bandwidth Throttling

Avoiding ISP Bandwidth ThrottlingEncrypted communication has the add-on effect of avoiding bandwidth throttling from ISPs. As mentioned earlier, service providers inspect packets to classify different data. This lets them put a speed cap on specific mediums. This is usually done unofficially and some service providers will deny the practice despite significant data to the contrary.

Despite this, it’s becoming more and more routine for ISPs to throttle or block torrent downloads. Everything you receive goes through their servers, allowing them to analyse it with Deep Packet Inspection. This method lets the service provider look at different data packets and classify it into different categories, such as video, music, and torrents.

Bandwidth throttling can be achieved in several ways. One method is blocking router ports often used for BitTorrent. Typically, P2P downloads go through TCP ports from 6881-6889. By limiting the speed on these, an ISP can cut out a big chunk of bandwidth.

However, this method is becoming less and less popular. Increasingly, torrent clients randomize TCP ports or tell users if there are any issues. As a result, internet service providers use methods that are harder to dodge.

One such technique is called traffic shaping. The flow of certain packets is delayed in favour of others, affecting download and upload speed. This can be done as a blanket, or through intelligent burst shaping. Burst shaping increases torrent speeds for a short period, before gradually returning to a lesser speed. Thus, extended downloads such as movies, games, and streaming are slower, while web pages still load quickly.

The need for shaping comes from the limited bandwidth resources of an ISP. It lets the service provider guarantee performance to other users by reducing the effect of heavy users. Often, P2P is main target for this, and it’s easy to see why. Torrent downloads use large amounts of bandwidth and therefore cost a lot of money to sustain. In addition, companies are under a lot of legal pressure from copyright holders. By throttling, they can assure the parties that they’re doing their bit to limit the impact of pirates.

Unfortunately, it’s difficult to differentiate between legal P2P downloads and illegal ones. This means that regular users can be throttled due to blanket policies. You can check if your torrents are being throttled by running the Glasnost test. The eight-minute download will detect bandwidth throttling in the upload and download streams separately.

How Australians Are Bypassing ISP Blocking of ThePirateBay, Torrentz, TorrentHound, IsoHunt and Streaming Service Sites

Posted in VPN Guides & Articles

How to bypass ISP blocking in Australia - Access Torrent sitesIt was just a matter of time until the new global wave of government site blocking at the ISP level arrived in Australia. In mid-December 2016, the Federal Court ruled that Internet companies would need to block sites such as ThePirateBay, Torrentz, TorrentHound, IsoHunt and streaming service SolarMovie. Australian ISPs were given 15 days to comply with the new decision and implement different blocking mechanisms to make it more difficult for users to gain access to these sites, however, it seems like blockages were bypassed by Australian users in just a few seconds.

The deadlines for the ISPs to implement the blocking was the 31st of December so from the 1st of January 2017, access to the above mentioned sites would be denied.

Download Torrents and access restricted content safely from anywhere in the world!

Accessing ThePirateBay and other Blocked Sites from Australia

Currently, when an Australian online user tries to access any of the 5 sites they are presented with the following website:

ThePiratebay blocked by a large Australian ISP

The Piratebay blocked by a large Australian ISP

Australia’s mobile network providers are also blocking access to the above sites presenting their users with a similar website.

No matter which ISP or mobile network users are coming from, they now all receive a message stating access to the selected sites is disabled.

How ISPs are Blocking ThePirateBay, Torrentz, TorrentHound, IsoHunt & SolarMovie

There is a number of different ways an ISP can choose to block access to the above sites in order to comply with the Federal Court ruling. This includes blocking IP addresses, DNS blocking, URL blocking or any other method agreed mutually by the ISPs and rights holders.

At the moment Telstra, Optus and DoDo, which are amongst Australia’s largest ISPs for home, businesses and mobile users, are implementing DNS blocking. When users on their networks send a DNS request to their DNS servers they are redirected to one of the sites specifically setup for the block.

The ISP block is affecting all of Australia’s mobile users

Optus DNS Blocking redirects users to a different website when trying to access ThePiratebay.org

This is also clearly evident when performing a simple nslookup query. In the example below, we queried Optus’s DNS server for www.thepiratebay.org and saw it pointed us to IP addresses & which do not belong to ThePirateBay:

Nslookup shows how easy it is to bypass DNS blocking and access any DNS-blocked site

Nslookup shows how easy it is to bypass DNS blocking and access any DNS-blocked site

After switching to Google’s public DNS servers located in the US, you’ll notice that we received different IP addresses for www.thepiratebay.org and were able to successfully access the website along with all other blocked websites.

Bypass DNS Blocking in Australia with a VPN Service

Using a VPN Service Provider is the best, safest and fastest way to access any restricted site not only from Australia but also across the globe. When connecting to a VPN service your internet traffic is routed through the VPN server, bypassing any local geographical restrictions, blocking or checkpoints from your ISP or government.

The advantages inherent in a VPN service are many but here are some of the most important:

  • Protection against DNS Leaking
  • Accessing blocked sites without exposing your internet activity
  • Torrenting without any restrictions
  • Stopping Bandwidth throttling from your ISP – take full advantage of your internet connection
  • Accessing region-restricted websites
  • Protecting your online privacy and identity
  • The ability to run the VPN client on your workstation/laptop or any mobile device
  • Unlimited access to US Netflix and other streaming services
  • Military-grade encryption to ensure your traffic is secure from hackers and monitoring services
  • The ability to share the VPN with multiple devices, including SmartTV, Netflix, family members and more

DNS Leak Testing & Protection – How to Avoid Exposing Your Identity & Online Activity

Posted in VPN Guides & Articles

DNS Leak - ISPs & Government spying on users online activitiesDespite innovations in security and technology, it’s difficult to remain anonymous online. Identifying information is seemingly everywhere – from malicious JavaScript tracking to the location services in web browsers. Even secure Linux operating systems like Tails have struggled to protect user’s privacy.

Windows 10 is no safe haven, either. By default, Microsoft collects information from users on an unprecedented level. Data that can be turned over to authorities or a third party. Increasingly, users must take extra steps to ensure privacy and be more knowledgeable about the services they’re using.

This applies even to users with anonymizing software. Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) are sometimes seen as blanket tools that guarantee identity protection. In truth, they have their own vulnerabilities and chief among them is the DNS Leak which only the best VPN service providers are able to resolve.

Check if you're vulnerable to DNS Leaks by using ExpressVPN's DNS Leak Tester

Understanding VPN DNS Leaks and How they Work

When you type a website URL into your browser, you’re essentially using a nickname. Typing in “firewall.cx” is more like asking a question. You send a request to a Domain Name System server, which then points you to the IP address of the site ( This saves us typing long strings of numbers each time, and is better for pretty much everyone.

However, it also comes with its own problem. DNS servers are given by your internet service provider (ISP), which offers them a list of every website you visit. Naturally, this compromises anonymity, but VPNs are supposed to fix that. Instead of requesting from your ISP, your traffic is routed through the VPN, protecting you.

Unfortunately, it doesn’t always work. In some cases, the operating system uses its default DNS servers instead of switching things up. This is most common in Windows, but can also happen on OSX, Linux, and mobile devices. It’s aptly named a DNS leak.

In some cases, a VPN is worse than not using one at all. Why? When using anonymising software, users have a sense of security. They may perform activities they wouldn’t otherwise, such as torrenting software or visiting controversial websites. It’s not immediately clear that a leak has occurred, and the user goes on thinking they’re safe for months at a time. In reality, their IP address is open and visible.

DNS leaks aren’t just utilized by service providers either. Websites can discover your true IP address using WebRTC, a collection of communications protocols present in most browsers. WebRTC allows for a request to a service provider’s Session Traversal Utilities for NAT (STUN) servers, listing both the local (internal) and public IP address (router WAN IP) of the user via JavaScript.

This can give a general location of the user and be used to track them across the site or other sites by the same owner. In addition, law enforcement or hackers may be able to gain access to this data, leading to serious repercussions.

DNS Leaks Used By Govenrments and ISPs

For example, DNS leaks were utilized by the Canadian Government in 2015, helping to track users on popular file sharing websites. Revealed by Edward Snowden, the technique combines several tactics to find out the identity of downloaders. In this case, targeted files were primarily terrorism related, but this could easily be extended to other media.

Snowden Digital Surveillance Archive: Screenshot from Canada's Levitation Program

Snowden Digital Surveillance Archive: Screenshot from Canada's Levitation Program

In fact, the UK government recently passed a law that does just that. The Investigatory Powers Bill forces ISPs to store and hand over DNS records in bulk for almost every user. This is used to create a list of websites each person has visited, regardless of any wrongdoing. As a result, UK users should be especially cautious about VPN DNS leaks, and can be certain any slip ups will be recorded.

Best VPN Service - Top VPN Service Reviews and VPN Comparisons

Posted in Best VPN Reviews

Best Fastest VPN Service ProviderVPN Services have become a necessity for users concerned about their online privacy and security. With literally hundreds of thousands of attacks daily, exploits and security vulnerabilities being discovered plus government agencies and ISPs monitoring user activity, the internet is no longer considered a safe place.

With the help of a VPN Service, users are able to hide their real IP address and online activities by connecting to a VPN server and passing all traffic through that server. This way, the internet only sees the IP address of the VPN server.

Today, extended VPN Services provide us with many different and useful capabilities. For example they can provide users with the ability to bypass geo-restrictions for streaming services such as Hulu and Netflix. They also offer increased security and identity protection for mobile devices such as iPhones, iPads, Laptops, Android smartphones, tablet devices etc. This makes finding and selecting the best VPN Service a difficult task as there are many parameters to take into consideration. Our dedicated network security team here at Firewall.cx has done just that for every VPN Provider and then put them to the test to produce the best VPN Service review ever.

Benefits of a VPN Service

Understanding the importance and benefits of a VPN is crucial to help you decide if you need a VPN and what features you should look for. Despite the different offerings from VPN providers there are some standard benefits that you’ll always get:

  • Increased Privacy. A VPN will hide your activities from your ISP and government. Traffic entering and exiting your VPN-enabled device is encrypted, making it almost impossible to intercept and decrypt.
  • Hiding your IP address. A VPN will hide your IP address as all traffic is tunnelled through the VPN provider. Addition security features such as DNS Leak Protection will ensure your IP addresses and online activity is not exposed.
  • Unblocking Geo-blocking services such as Netflix, Hulu and others. By connecting to a VPN server located in the country you wish to access content from, you’re able to by-pass any geo-blocking.
  • Increased Torrent Download Speed. Bandwidth throttling is big problem for home users as ISPs unofficially lower the priority of torrent data streams, resulting in slow download speeds. A VPN encrypts all traffic so the ISP is unable to determine what you’re downloading.
  • Bypass Firewall Restrictions. When connecting to a VPN server all application traffic, regardless of the ports used, is channelled through the VPN. This bypasses all restrictions enforced by a firewall or proxy server allowing you to use any application (torrent, chat, streaming, gaming, SMTP etc).

Best VPN Service Review: Quick Summary



  • Super Fast Network*
    Achieved highest download/upload speeds and lowest latency!
  • 5 Day Money-back Guarantee
  • Unblock US Netflix*
    Netflix worked with most US-based servers!
  • Connect up to 2 devices
  • Servers in 22 countries*
    More than 650 servers world-wide!
  • 24/7 Ticket Support


  • Fast Network*
    Network speeds will satisfy even the most demanding users!
  • 30 Days Money-back Guarantee!
  • Unblock US Netflix*
    Netflix worked with specific US-based servers
  • Connect up to 3 devices
  • Servers in 87 countries*
    More than 1000 servers world-wide!
  • 24/7 Live Support


  • Fast Network*
    This provider is capable of delivering fast download and upload speeds that will impress!
  • 7 Day Money-back Guarantee
  • Unblock US Netflix*
    Netflix worked with specific US-based servers
  • Connect up to 5 devices
  • Servers in 60 countries*
    More than 700 servers world-wide!
  • 24/7 Ticket Support


  • Fast Network*
    Speeds won't disappoint home or mobile users
  • 30 Day Money-back Guarantee
  • Unblock US Netflix*
    Netflix worked with almost every US-based server thanks to SmartPlay
  • Connect up to 6 devices
  • Servers in 56 countries*
    More than 720 server world-wide!
  • 24/7 Live Support

Private Internet Access

  • Fast Network*
    Fast speeds with very low latency. Ideal for gamers and VoIP applications
  • 7 Day Money-back Guarantee
  • Unblock US Netflix*
    Netflix worked with most US-based servers
  • Connect up to 5 devices
  • Servers in 24 countries*
    More than 3274 servers world-wide!
  • 24/7 Ticket Support


  • Great Network*
    Ideal for casual browsing and downloading.
  • 3 Day Money-back Guarantee
  • Unblock US Netflix*
    Netflix worked with specific US-based servers
  • Connect up to 3 devices
  • Servers in 70+ countries*
    More than 700 servers world-wide!
  • 24/7 Live Support
The Best VPN Service Providers  *= Place mouse cursor on top for more information

How Our Best VPN Service Tests Were Performed

Evaluating the best VPN service can be a tricky task, especially when you take into consideration that not everyone is looking for the same features in a VPN. To give each provider a fair chance to live up to its reputation we decided to evaluate them based on the following criteria listed in order of importance:

  • SpeedTest.net Download/Upload including Latency test
  • Netflix VPN, Torrents and Blocked sites, Geo-blocking Bypass.
  • Security features (DNS Leak Protection, Kill Switch etc)
  • Encryption protocols (PPTP/L2TP IPSec/OpenVPN etc) & Support for Dedicated VPN Routers
  • No-Log Policy & Bitcoin payment support
  • User-Friendly VPN client interface
  • Price – based on a 12 month subscription

Testing US Netflix Best VPN Providers

Accessing & streaming US Netflix content is a hot topic for most of our readers which is why we’ve included it in our tests. While other reviews might indicate whether or not US Netflix is supported, we took that extra step to test and verify the service.

All Netflix stream testing was performed from a 20Mbps home broadband connection using a US Netflix account configured to stream at the highest possible setting (High) which generates 3GB/hour for HD or 7GB/hour for Ultra HD. These settings would test each VPN Provider’s ability to perform continuous, uninterrupted streaming to a home or mobile VPN user.

Best VPN Provider Download/Upload Speed Tests

Speedtest.net was selected as a testing platform to evaluate download and upload speeds. Our tests were performed from Melbourne Australia using a premium 200Mbps link to the internet while OpenVPNUDP or OpenVPN TCP (when UDP failed) was the VPN protocol used to connect to each provider. The Speedtest.net server located at San Jose, CA Server (No.4) shown below was used for download/upload test. This server was strategically selected as it’s hosted by Speedtest.net and showed stable transfer rates capable of exceeding 185Mbps.

Best VPN Service - Speed Test 

Our selected Speedtest.net server and non-VPN speed tests results (click to enlarge)

Our Speedtest.net test to San Jose, CA Server (No.4) without a VPN yielded an impressive 185Mbps download speed and 123Mbps upload speed confirming the path between us and the Speedtest.net server was not congested.

While test values still fluctuated, the tests we’ve selected to publish are the average results from each VPN Provider.

Best VPN Service Providers for 2018

Without further delay, let’s take an in-depth look at our Best VPN Service Providers for 2018:


Cisco Routers

  • SSL WebVPN
  • Securing Routers
  • Policy Based Routing
  • Router on-a-Stick

VPN Security

  • Understand DMVPN
  • GRE/IPSec Configuration
  • Site-to-Site IPSec VPN
  • IPSec Modes

Cisco Help

  • VPN Client Windows 8
  • VPN Client Windows 7
  • CCP Display Problem
  • Cisco Support App.

Windows 2012

  • New Features
  • Licensing
  • Hyper-V / VDI
  • Install Hyper-V


  • File Permissions
  • Webmin
  • Groups - Users
  • Samba Setup